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tuart informed Lee of the arrival of Grant's army, on the north bank of the Rapidan, opposite the Germanna and Ely fords, on the 3d of May, and of the crossing of those fords by his advance on the next day. Knowing this, Lee, on the morning of the 4th, issued his usual precautionary orders against the destruction of private property of all kinds, and, at 9 a. m., when the signal officer from Clark's mountain waved that Grant's columns were in motion toward the Confederate right, he gave orders bridge, on the North Anna, on the old road that Lafayette had cut through the forest, to the northeastward, to Verdiersville, in order to form a junction with Wayne, and which, to this day, is known as the Marquis' road. During the night of the 4th, Lee sent orders to Ewell to march upon the enemy at daylight of the 5th, desiring to bring him to battle now as soon as possible. He ordered Hill forward at the same hour, and himself promptly rode to the front, along the plank road, and was wit
of the 4th, Lee sent orders to Ewell to march upon the enemy at daylight of the 5th, desiring to bring him to battle now as soon as possible. He ordered Hill forwadirect way to Richmond, which Grant, in his order of march on the morning of the 5th, expected his army to traverse, having already ordered Hancock to Shady Grove che hotly contested battle that had again begun. When, in the afternoon of the 5th, Hancock halted on the Brock road, with his right near the plank road, he was nost every effort until night, when the contest closed. During the night of the 5th, Hill's and Ewell's men held the lines from which they had fought during the day One division of Burnside's corps crossed Germanna ford on the morning of the 5th, and another on the morning of the 6th. Grant ordered these fresh troops to mak Hancock the left. Ewell's men strengthened their line, during the night of the 5th, with breastworks, and planted batteries all along it, and so were able to drive
ight, drove back the charges of Sheridan's cavalry. After this first day of Wilderness battle was over, Lee telegraphed to Richmond, By the blessing of God we maintained our position against every effort until night, when the contest closed. During the night of the 5th, Hill's and Ewell's men held the lines from which they had fought during the day. Lee ordered Longstreet to make a night march, which he began at 1 a. m., expecting to have him in position, on his right, by daylight of the 6th, to help in an aggressive fight which he proposed to make at the dawn of day, advancing his entire battle line against Grant's. Ewell opened this battle, at 5 in the morning, by attacking Warren and Sedgwick. The engagement quickly extended to Lee's right, against which Hancock made prompt advance, again assaulting Hill's weak line (that Lee had expected to replace with Longstreet, before daylight), but which he could not force from its position. Wadsworth moved against Hill's left flank, a
of which it was throwing up new lines of breastworks, along the positions to which it had been forced back on its right and along its center, and was grimly holding on to the triple line of defenses that guarded its left. On the morning of the 7th, at 10, Grant telegraphed to Washington, from the Wilderness tavern: We were engaged with the enemy nearly all day, both on the 5th and the 6th. Yesterday the enemy attacked our lines vigorously, first at one point and then another, from righdericksburg, in his rear, along which Grant was sending his wounded to Aquia creek, and by which he had communication with his base of supplies, which he had now shifted to the same point on the Potomac. These movements, during the night of the 7th, would leave two corps in front of Lee and withdraw two farther to the east. Grant and Meade were apprehensive, during all the 7th, that Lee might again attack them, as indicated by the dispatch Grant sent to Washington, about noon of the 8th, i
o Fredericksburg, in his rear, along which Grant was sending his wounded to Aquia creek, and by which he had communication with his base of supplies, which he had now shifted to the same point on the Potomac. These movements, during the night of the 7th, would leave two corps in front of Lee and withdraw two farther to the east. Grant and Meade were apprehensive, during all the 7th, that Lee might again attack them, as indicated by the dispatch Grant sent to Washington, about noon of the 8th, in which he said: The army commenced moving south at 9 p. m. yesterday, and when closed up to the position assigned for the first day's march will stand thus: General Warren's corps at Spottsylvania Court House; Hancock at Todd's tavern; Sedgwick on the road from Piney Branch church to Spottsylvania, and General Burnside at Aldrich's. It is not demonstrated what the enemy will do, but the best of feeling prevails in this army, and I feel at present no apprehension for the result. My eff
itary operations in Virginia. Meade's army had not only been brought to a high degree of efficiency, by drill and discipline, during its winter encampment in Culpeper, but large numbers of fresh troops were added to it during the closing days of April Early in that month Grant arrived at Culpeper Court House, having in mind a definite plan of campaign toward Richmond, which he proceeded to put into execution by ordering an advance of Meade's army to the Germanna and Ely fords of the Rapidan, iclothed and best fed army that ever took the field. Its supply train, if extended in single line of march, would have covered more than 100 miles of distance. To meet this mighty host, which was about to pass his flank, Lee had, at the end of April, less than 62,000 men for battle; 22,000, under A. P. Hill, near Orange Court House; some 17,000, under Ewell, in the Mountain run valley; 10,000 in Longstreet's two divisions, encamped near Gordonsville; 224 guns in his batteries, manned by 4,80
igades each; the First, led by Wade Hampton, of South Carolina; the Second, by Fitz Lee, of Virginia. Fitz Lee's three brigades, commanded by W. H. F. Lee, L. L. Lomax and Williams F. Wickham, were all from Virginia. At the opening of the campaign, Stuart's cavalry held the line of the lower Rapidan and of the lower Rappahannock, guarding Lee's right flank. Stuart informed Lee of the arrival of Grant's army, on the north bank of the Rapidan, opposite the Germanna and Ely fords, on the 3d of May, and of the crossing of those fords by his advance on the next day. Knowing this, Lee, on the morning of the 4th, issued his usual precautionary orders against the destruction of private property of all kinds, and, at 9 a. m., when the signal officer from Clark's mountain waved that Grant's columns were in motion toward the Confederate right, he gave orders for his army to advance, as prearranged, to meet the Federal movement. Two parallel roads led from his camps toward the Wilderness.
at he then bade them prepare to take up the line of march whenever orders were given from the signal station. When Grant ordered his forward movement, on the 4th of May, there were 147,000 men under his command, in and near Culpeper, disposed in three grand army corps; the Second led by Hancock, the Fifth by Warren, and the Sixange plank road, sending message after message to hurry up Longstreet, to support the Confederate right when the battle should be joined. At the close of the 4th of May, Grant telegraphed, from Germanna ford, to Halleck, chief of staff of the army at Washington: The crossing of the Rapidan effected. Forty-eight hours now willthward, along the Orange and Fredericksburg road, on the high watershed between the Rappahannock and the head branches of the Pamunkey. In the evening of the 4th of May, Ewell established his headquarters near Locust Grove, on the old turnpike, with his advance but an hour's march from Grant's passing flank, on the same road, a
we can claim no victory over the enemy, neither have they gained a single advantage. The enemy pushed out of his fortifications to prevent their position being turned, and have been sooner or later driven back in every instance. Up to this hour the enemy have not shown themselves in force within a mile of our lines. He does not say that he had withdrawn his lines, in many places, and thus secured the mile of interval that he mentions. Well-nigh exhausted by the desperate struggles of May 5th and 6th, each army was quite content to rest behind its defenses, care for its wounded and bury its dead, during the 7th; neither caring to again attempt to carry the breastworks of the other, each formidable with well-placed artillery. Grant, having now found out that Lee was still willing to give battle this side of Richmond, for which information he had paid dearly by the loss of 17,000 men, now attempted, by a sidling movement to the left, to steal by Lee and renew his interrupted marc
n from this double-fire line, and planted their flags on the front line of breastworks, but for a short time only. They were repulsed by the fierce artillery fire that was poured upon them, as night put an end to the fierce struggles of this 6th day of May. At the close of this day, Lee held, all along his lines, a position advanced from that held in the morning, and the great army of the Potomac found itself in the toils of a defensive struggle, in aid of which it was throwing up new lines ofve not shown themselves in force within a mile of our lines. He does not say that he had withdrawn his lines, in many places, and thus secured the mile of interval that he mentions. Well-nigh exhausted by the desperate struggles of May 5th and 6th, each army was quite content to rest behind its defenses, care for its wounded and bury its dead, during the 7th; neither caring to again attempt to carry the breastworks of the other, each formidable with well-placed artillery. Grant, having now
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