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e Forty-third, and McLain, of the Thirty-seventh, Lieutenant-Colonels Terral, of the Seventh battalion, and Campbell, of the Fortieth, and Majors Keirn, of the Thirty-eighth, and Yates, of the Thirty-sixth. At four o'clock on the morning of the 4th, the Confederate batteries were in position and opened fire upon the town, and an attack was ordered at daylight; but there was a delay until nine o'clock, ascribed to the illness of General Hebert. Price's command swept forward, notwithstanding forces were exhausted. Many of the regiments were without either ammunition or rations. It was evident that the attack had failed, and preparations were at once made for retreat. Lovell's division, which had not attacked on the morning of the 4th, formed to protect the retreat, which was not molested during the afternoon by Rosecrans, whose force was evidently also in no shape to immediately renew the fight. The retreat was continued on the 5th to Davis' bridge on the Hatchie, but the bri
bridge was found in the hands of Hurlbut. Moore's brigade, now but 300 men, was thrown across, but the enemy was strongly posted and Moore, reinforced by Phifer, was swept back over the bridge, losing four guns. All that Maury's division, reinforced by Villepigue, could do, was to check the enemy's advance until Van Dorn could find another crossing place. If Rosecrans had promptly followed Van Dorn, as ordered by Grant, the Confederate army could hardly have escaped. He did set out on the 5th, with McPherson's fresh brigade in advance, but before he could bring up strength enough to overcome the strong resistance of Bowen's brigade, guarding the rear, Van Dorn was safely crossing the Hatchie at a bridge six miles south of Davis', and Bowen crossed the Tuscumbia, burning the bridge behind him and saving all the trains. In this very important contest on the Tuscumbia, Carruthers' battalion and the Fifteenth Mississippi and some companies of Jackson's cavalry carried off the hono
mplated the concentration of about 100,000 men for the purpose of capturing Vicksburg, and in fact securing possession of the whole of northern Mississippi. Pemberton had a very small force to oppose this gigantic combination, and he made urgent calls for reinforcements as early as October, when it became apparent what was on foot. Grant was at La Grange, Tenn., November 9th, and a cavalry reconnoissance sent on toward Holly Springs discovered that that place had been evacuated. On the 9th General Pemberton had ordered Van Dorn and Price and Lovell back to the south bank of the Tallahatchie, where fortifications were begun. Price was posted between Abbeville and the Tallahatchie bridge, Lovell near the ford at the mouth of the Tippah, and General George with his State troops put on guard at Oxford. Grant brought his army up to Holly Springs about two weeks later, repairing the railroad as he marched, and established his depot of supplies at the point he had now reached. Ab
ing Buell toward Nashville, and that he should watch Rosecrans and prevent the junction of the latter with Buell. Word was received from Van Dorn that he would be ready to move from Holly Springs on the 12th to support the army of the West. Price immediately advanced his headquarters to Guntown, and having ascertained that Rosecrans was at Iuka with 10,000 men, he marched in that direction on the 11th with his whole army. The cavalry, under General Armstrong, arrived before the town on the 13th, but found there only a small garrison which retired on the 14th when the remainder of Price's forces came up, abandoning a large amount of stores. Rosecrans was at Corinth and Grant at Burnsville. The latter feared that Price was about to move to Nashville to join Bragg, and made his dispositions accordingly. Price, indeed, received an order to proceed to Nashville; but he believed that this was given under the impression that Rosecrans had joined Buell, and he resolved that as he had t
e railroad. In his report of the battle which followed, Grant candidly stated that his object was to destroy or capture Price's entire army. In this he was defeated by the valor of the Confederate troops. So it happened that about noon on the 19th, before Price was under way for Rienzi, and when his army was posted rather to repel an attack from the north than the south, his pickets were driven in by Rosecrans' advance on the Jacinto road. Gen. Henry Little, who commanded one of the two di Grant waited at Oxford for Sherman to make his way down the river, but the latter did not reach Friar's Point with his advance until December 21st, and meanwhile a great change in the situation had been wrought by the Confederate cavalry. On the 19th Nathan B. Forrest, then a brigadier-general, a brilliant soldier in whose exploits Mississippi felt a motherly pride, as his youth had been spent in this State, drove the strong Federal garrison from Jackson, Tenn., and then made a clean sweep of
. J. Smith, Morgan L. Smith, George W. Morgan and Frederick Steele, embracing 30,000 men, at the mouth of the Yazoo. Before concentrating there, he had sent out detachments to destroy the railroad running west from Vicksburg in Louisiana. On the 26th Sherman's fleet moved up the Yazoo, preceded by the gunboats; and on the next day he landed his divisions both above and below Chickasaw Bayou. The Confederate line which confronted Sherman was about fourteen miles long, the right consisting of sr sandbar, four regiments and a battery at the head of Chickasaw Bayou, and a regiment between the mound and the bayou. Rifle-pits were hurriedly thrown up at the mound and the bayou, and across the lake timber was felled for an abatis. On the 26th the fighting began with Morgan's advance on the west side of the bayou, which was gallantly held in check by Col. W. T. Withers with the Seventeenth Louisiana, two companies of the Forty-sixth Mississippi, and a section of Wofford's battery, stati
nd at the Indian mound or sand-bar. Morgan was to advance on the west side of the bayou and Steele on the east. After driving in the Confederate pickets on the 27th, Sherman reconnoitered the ground as well as possible, he says, and found it as difficult as could possibly be from nature and art. Immediately in our front was anth Louisiana, two companies of the Forty-sixth Mississippi, and a section of Wofford's battery, stationed between the bayou and lake. Early on the morning of the 27th, General Lee reported, the enemy appeared in force and attacked Colonel Withers with violence. The colonel retired for a short distance up the bayou to a piece ofch kept up a continuous fire. The advance of Steele on the levee had given General Lee much uneasiness, and he had increased his force there on the night of the 27th, placing Colonel Withers, First Mississippi artillery, in charge, with the Forty-sixth Mississippi, Seventeenth Louisiana and Bowman's battery. The main fighting
ers with violence. The colonel retired for a short distance up the bayou to a piece of woods, and held his ground against a largely superior force. The enemy also appeared in force in the woods in front of the Indian mound, driving in our skirmishers across the lake. They also appeared at Blake's levee, at the same time attacking our batteries at Snyder's Mill. They evidently had excellent guides, attacking us at every point where it was possible to reach the road. On the morning of the 28th, the enemy again attacked the woods held the previous day by Colonel Withers, but now by Col. Allen Thomas' Louisiana regiment. Thomas held his ground against at least a brigade and a battery of six guns until noon, when he retired, rapidly followed by the enemy, who was checked by a volley from Colonel Hall's Louisiana regiment in rifle-pits at the lake. The enemy also attacked Colonel Morrison at the mound in heavy force, and placed several batteries opposite to him which kept up a contin
fantry force which had been landed at Snyder's Mill was withdrawn, only the gunboats remaining to amuse themselves with fire at long range. Sherman now determined to make his attack in force at the bayou where Thomas had been pushed back. He withdrew Steele from the other side of the bayou and put him in with Morgan. By this arrangement he chose to attack at the apex of a triangle while Lee held the base and two sides, as the latter officer has pointed out. Early on the morning of the 29th, Lee withdrew Hall from the rifle-pits beyond the lake, leaving open to Sherman the approach which he had selected, through the abatis, the mucky shallow at the head of the bayou and the tangled marsh, to the dry ground on which Lee awaited him. Morgan advanced cautiously and took possession of the abandoned rifle-pits, and at the same time attempted to throw a pontoon bridge over the lake on his right, which was thwarted by a few well-directed shots from Wofford's battery and Lieutenant Tar
arton, who had arrived with his brigade, was posted. The Federals made five efforts throughout the day to take the breastworks by storm—three times gained the crest of the parapet, once made a lodgment and attempted to mine, but on every occasion was repulsed with heavy loss. The ground for 150 yards in front of the breastworks gave frightful evidence of the slaughter which occurred here. Just after the battle, Maj.-Gen. Carter L. Stevenson arrived and took command of the forces. On the 30th the attack was renewed on Barton, but not with much vigor, and the 31st was given to the burial of their dead by the Federals. Sherman gave up hope of breaking the Confederate line in the place where he was now bottled, and arranged with Admiral Porter for a night movement by water to Snyder's Mill, where 10,000 men should be landed while Porter held the batteries down. But the last night of 1862 was too foggy and the first night of 1863 was too bright; and on the next day the whole Federal
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