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Virginia (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 102
and object of, the Maryland campaign cannot be better stated than was done by General Lee himself in his report: The armies of Generals McClellan and Pope, says he, had now been brought back to the point from which they set out on the campaigns of the Spring and Summer. The objects of their campaigns had been frustrated, and the designs of the enemy on the coast of North Carolina and Western Virginia thwarted by the withdrawal of the main body of his forces from those regions. Northeastern Virginia was freed from the presence of Federal soldiers up to the intrenchments of Washington, and soon after the arrival of the army at Leesburg information was received that the troops which had occupied Winchester had retired to Harpers Ferry and Martinsburg. The war was thus transferred from the interior to the frontier, and the supplies of rich and productive districts made accessible to our army. To prolong a state of affairs, in every way desirable, and not to permit the season for
Rockville, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 102
more to Frederick. Robertson's brigade, under Munford, was posted on the right with his advance at Poolesville; Hampton's at Hyattstown, and Fitz. Lee's at New Market; cavalry headquarters were established at Urbana, eight miles soutwest of Frederick, and in the rear of the centre of the line thus established. This was the position on the night of September 5th. On the 6th, Leemoved his infantry to Frederick, the cavalry retaining its line. On the same day McClellan moved out as far as Rockville, which brought him within fifteen miles of Stuart's pickets. By the 9th he had cautiously pushed out some eight or nine miles further, the right wing, under Burnside, occupying Brookville; the centre Middlebrook, and Franklin on the left Darnestown; while Couch was kept close on the Potomac at the mouth of Seneca. The position thus taken by Mc-Clellan was a defensive one, on the ridges along the line of Seneca Creek, and was intended by him to be occupied in defensive battle. He had no
Washington (United States) (search for this): chapter 102
1862, the President of the United States issued a general order, somewhat theatrical, to all of the armies of the United States, directing them to make a general advance on the 22d of February, then ensuing, on the whole line extending from Washington city to the Missouri river. The forces intended for the reduction of Virginia were the Army of Western Virginia, General Fremont, the Army of the Potomac, General McClellan, and the Army of North Carolina, General Burnside. After this general mge of mountains running through Frederick county from the Potomac to Pennsylvania. Parallel and about eight miles northwest runs the South Mountain, the extension through Maryland of the Blue Ridge, the dividing line between Frederick and Washington counties. From two miles and a half to three miles northwest of South Mountain runs the Elk Ridge from the Potomac, extending almost eight miles parallel to the South mountain. The Valley of the Monocacy is east of the Catoctin. Between it
Clarksburg, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 102
e on Loudoun Heights during the evening of the 13th. At night of the 13th, therefore, the investment of Harper's Ferry was complete. Escape was impossible. Rescue by McClellan was the only salvation. General Lee, with Longstreet and the reserve artillery, had in the meantime gone into camp at Hagerstown and D. H. Hill at Boonsboro. We left McClellan on the 9th occupying the ridges along the line of the Seneca. On the 10th he moved his centre some five miles further to Damascus and Clarksburgh, and his left to Poolesville and Barnesville where he came in contact with Stuart's lines. The duty of the cavalry was only to cover the movements of Lee which had begun that morning, and Stuart merely held his position until pressed back by McClellan's infantry. On the 11th he withdrew, still spreading a cordon of cavalry, covering about twenty miles between the Federal and Confederate armies. Munford, with the Second and Twelfth Virginia cavalry (the rest of Robertson's brigade bei
Missouri (United States) (search for this): chapter 102
d, the results achieved and the incredible disparity of numbers between the armies engaged, the operations of that campaign were as extraordinary as any ever recorded for the same period of time. On the first day of January, 1862, the President of the United States issued a general order, somewhat theatrical, to all of the armies of the United States, directing them to make a general advance on the 22d of February, then ensuing, on the whole line extending from Washington city to the Missouri river. The forces intended for the reduction of Virginia were the Army of Western Virginia, General Fremont, the Army of the Potomac, General McClellan, and the Army of North Carolina, General Burnside. After this general movement had been made a fourth army was organized as the Army of Virginia which was to cooperate with these converging columns in the general movement on the Capital of the Confederate States. Burnside's army occupied Roanoke Island and New Berne and seated itself on the
Hyattstown (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 102
rt, bringing up the rear. The infantry camped that night at the Three Springs, in Frederick county, nine miles from Frederick. The cavalry passedat once to the flank, and extended an impenetrable veil of pickets across Montgomery and Frederick counties, from the Potomac to New Market, beyond the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and on the National turnpike from Baltimore to Frederick. Robertson's brigade, under Munford, was posted on the right with his advance at Poolesville; Hampton's at Hyattstown, and Fitz. Lee's at New Market; cavalry headquarters were established at Urbana, eight miles soutwest of Frederick, and in the rear of the centre of the line thus established. This was the position on the night of September 5th. On the 6th, Leemoved his infantry to Frederick, the cavalry retaining its line. On the same day McClellan moved out as far as Rockville, which brought him within fifteen miles of Stuart's pickets. By the 9th he had cautiously pushed out some eight or nine miles
Austria (Austria) (search for this): chapter 102
ion on the art of war. The Confederate war-ship, Virginia (Merrimac), made a complete revolution in naval architecture and warfare. The Confederate torpedo service has made an entire change in the system of defence of water-ways. The Confederate cavalry raid has necessitated an alteration in the tactics, as well as the strategy of armies and Generals. Von Borcke told me that while Stuart's raid around McClellan was not regarded with respect by the Prussian Generals in the Prusso-Austrian campaign, of 1866, the principle of thus using cavalry was adopted in full by them in the Franco-Prussian campaign, of 1870, and that now Stuart was considered the first cavalry General of the century, as the campaigns of Lee and Jackson were the models taught from, in Continental Military Schools. While the civil war afforded many brilliant illustrations of genius for war, of daring and heroic achievment, while the valley campaign furnishes a model and the defence of Richmond in 1864, a
Sandy Hook, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 102
t off from the rest of the army, and McLaws cooped up in Pleasant Valley with 6,500 men, by Franklin with 12,300 at the one end of the Valley and Miles with 11,000 at the other. But such prompt action was not taken by the Federal Commander-in-Chief He put his troops in motion on the morning of the 14th, after a comfortable breakfast, and they proceeded leisurely enough to Burketsville and Middletown. On that morning Stuart, finding nothing in front of Crampton's, sent Hampton down to Sandy Hook, the point between the South Mountain and the Potomac, and left Munford with his handful of cavalry to guard Crampton. He had the Second Virginia cavalry, 125 men, Twelfth Virginia cavalry, 75 and two fragments of infantry regiments of Mahone's brigade. About noon Franklin arrived, Munford dismounted his cavalry and deployed them behind a stone wall on each side of the road at the foot of the mountain on the flank of the infantry. His artillery, consisting of Chew's battery and a sectio
Pleasant Valley (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 102
n Valley, and between South Mountain and Elk Ridge is Pleasant Valley. Along the base of the Blue Ridge in Virginia, the Shd over the South Mountain range by Crampton's Gap into Pleasant Valley. After some sharp fighting he got possession of Marylnfantry. Lee's army was divided in part by the narrow Pleasant Valley. If a march had been made by Reno, at sun-down, on Tuoff from the rest of the army, and McLaws cooped up in Pleasant Valley with 6,500 men, by Franklin with 12,300 at the one end and reforming the infantry. A line was formed across Pleasant Valley, and Franklin's further progress stopped. Turner's Couch during the night, held eighteen thousand men in Pleasant Valley, behind McLaws, and also eight miles from Sharpsburg. rry, seventeen and a half miles off. McLaws cut off in Pleasant Valley, with no escape except first to capture Harpers Ferry, that all the rest of Lee's army was in Virginia or in Pleasant Valley. Notwithstanding this it took him from the morning of
Keedysville (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 102
four bridges. On the east side, where McClellan was now forming his army for battle, a series of rolling hills rather overlook the comparatively level country of the west side on which Lee's line was formed. Near the mouth of the Antietam is a bridge, which was used by no troops during the battle. About a mile, southeast of Sharpsburg, is a stone bridge, known as Burnside's Bridge. A mile and a quarter further up the creek is another bridge, on the broad turnpike from Boonsboroa and Keedysville to Sharpsburg, which I call the Keedysville Bridge. Two miles further up stream is another bridge above Pry's mill, known as Pry's Bridge. A mile and a half east of, and parallel to, the Antietam, is a high range of hills called the Red Hills. On the 16th Lee's line was formed with Longstreet on his right, Toombs being his right, and to the right of the Burnside Bridge, D. H. Hill covered the Keedysville Bridge, Hood, with his two small brigades, extended the line on D. H. Hill's left,
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