is totally inconsistent with this theory of accident in the concentration at Gettysburg.
On the 28th of June General Early's Division of Ewell's Corps was in the vicinity of York, some thirty miles east of Gettysburg; the divisions of Generals Edward Johnson and Rodes were at or near Carlisle, about thirty miles directly north of that town, while Heth's and Pender's and the other divisions of the army were in and about Chambersburg, nearly thirty miles to the westward.
Thus Early and Heth wre—the first order mentioned in the above for Ewell to retire from Carlisle on Chambersburg—has ever been noticed by historians.
General Ewell, having no good reason against it, on receipt of this order at once headed the divisions of Rodes and Johnson towards Gettysburg.
General Early, at page 467, Part 2, Volume XXVII, War Records, notes the receipt at York, through General Ewell, of a copy of the foregoing order of General Lee, with verbal instructions to move back, and began his march tow
It was in no wise the result of chance, at least, in respect of the Confederate preliminary movements.
Finally, in his various letters and reports concerning the Gettysburg campaign, General Lee several times alludes to his conclusion and the reason as well as the order for this concentration at Gettysburg.
I make the following extract from his official report, found at page 305, Part 2, Volume XXVII, War Records.:
headquarters army of Northern Virginia, July 31, 1863. General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector-General, Richmond, Va.:
General,—* * * Preparations were now made to advance upon Harrisburg, but upon the night of the 28th information was received from a scout that the Federal army, having crossed the Potomac, was advancing northward, and that the head of the column had reached the South mountain.
As our communications with the Potomac were thus menaced, it was resolved to prevent his further progress in that direction by concentrating our army on the ea