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tements have been so long overlooked. In the last days of June a scout of General Longstreet's, who had passed through Washington, and subsequently the Union army, arrived at General Lee's headquarters, in Chambersburg, with the information that Hooker's entire force had crossed the Potomac, and was moving northward, imperilling the Confederate communications with the South. This made necessary the immediate drawing in of the widely-sundered Confederate divisions. Changed his mind. It ising order, found on page 943, Part 3, Volume XXVII, of the War Records. headquarters army of Northern Virginia, Chambersburg, June 28, 1863. Lieutenant-General R. S. Ewell, Commanding Corps. General,—I wrote you last night, stating that General Hooker was reported to have crossed the Potomac, and is advancing by way of Middletown, the head of his column being at that point, in Frederick county. I directed you in that letter to move your forces to this point. If you have not already progr
lled and wounded. Reynolds was killed and Heth wounded very early in this terrific combat. General Hill ordered forward Pender's Division to the support of Heth, who had been roughly handled, and later Rodes's and Early's Divisions came up, while terals Edward Johnson and Rodes were at or near Carlisle, about thirty miles directly north of that town, while Heth's and Pender's and the other divisions of the army were in and about Chambersburg, nearly thirty miles to the westward. Thus Early anch was the result of mere chance it was a most singular circumstance, indeed, that the four converging divisions—Heth and Pender, from the west; Early from the east, and Rodes from the north—should all arrive opportunely on the field of Gettysburg beh's Division to Cashtown, some eight miles from Gettysburg, following on the morning of the 30th with the division of General Pender. General Longstreet reports that he received orders at Chambersburg on the 29th to follow Hill and encamp at Greenwo
c combat. General Hill ordered forward Pender's Division to the support of Heth, who had been roughly handled, and later Rodes's and Early's Divisions came up, while the Union force was augmented by the timely arrival of Howard's Eleventh Corps. As Corps was in the vicinity of York, some thirty miles east of Gettysburg; the divisions of Generals Edward Johnson and Rodes were at or near Carlisle, about thirty miles directly north of that town, while Heth's and Pender's and the other divisioingular circumstance, indeed, that the four converging divisions—Heth and Pender, from the west; Early from the east, and Rodes from the north—should all arrive opportunely on the field of Gettysburg between the hours of 9 A. M. and 12 noon, in timeby historians. General Ewell, having no good reason against it, on receipt of this order at once headed the divisions of Rodes and Johnson towards Gettysburg. General Early, at page 467, Part 2, Volume XXVII, War Records, notes the receipt at York
George G. Meade (search for this): chapter 1.22
iles east of Chambersburg. General Hill reports that he was directed to co-operate with Ewell, and, accordingly, on the 29th, moved General Heth's Division to Cashtown, some eight miles from Gettysburg, following on the morning of the 30th with the division of General Pender. General Longstreet reports that he received orders at Chambersburg on the 29th to follow Hill and encamp at Greenwood. Meanwhile the advancing Federals, moving northward more rapidly under their new commander, General Meade, than anticipated by the Confederate chieftain, had occupied the town of Gettysburg, and thus interposed—though unaware of the fact—to prevent the concentration of his armies at that point without a battle. And to accomplish his original design, and finding the enemy before him, General Lee elected to fight; his remaining divisions were hurried forward as rapidly as possible; the Federals, perceiving that the crisis was at hand, pushed forward to the conflict, and the great battle of G
Jubal A. Early (search for this): chapter 1.22
ion to the support of Heth, who had been roughly handled, and later Rodes's and Early's Divisions came up, while the Union force was augmented by the timely arrival theory of accident in the concentration at Gettysburg. On the 28th of June General Early's Division of Ewell's Corps was in the vicinity of York, some thirty miles army were in and about Chambersburg, nearly thirty miles to the westward. Thus Early and Heth were fully sixty miles apart, on an almost direct line east and west, nce, indeed, that the four converging divisions—Heth and Pender, from the west; Early from the east, and Rodes from the north—should all arrive opportunely on the fiu will have a turnpike most of the way, and you can thus join your divisions to Early's, which is east of the mountains. I think it preferable to keep on the east srder at once headed the divisions of Rodes and Johnson towards Gettysburg. General Early, at page 467, Part 2, Volume XXVII, War Records, notes the receipt at York,
John F. Reynolds (search for this): chapter 1.22
ed in front of Gettysburg, and covering the road from Cashtown, which he stubbornly defended, compelling the Confederates to deploy into line and advance with caution. Buford was soon relieved by the Union First corps of infantry, under General John F. Reynolds, and a murderous battle ensued, in which both sides lost several thousand men killed and wounded. Reynolds was killed and Heth wounded very early in this terrific combat. General Hill ordered forward Pender's Division to the support ofReynolds was killed and Heth wounded very early in this terrific combat. General Hill ordered forward Pender's Division to the support of Heth, who had been roughly handled, and later Rodes's and Early's Divisions came up, while the Union force was augmented by the timely arrival of Howard's Eleventh Corps. And thus the Battle of Gettysburg began. Earnest in his conviction. This is General Heth's version of the concentration. In short, that General Lee was compelled by his fight to send forward first one division, then another, until, finally, the entire army was brought to the vicinity of Gettysburg by nightfall of the
General Lee and the battle of Gettysburg. [from the Richmond Dispatch, December 8, 1895.] He e purpose, and to that extent reflects upon General Lee's capacity as a commander. This aspect of the manner and its bearing upon General Lee's reputation as a soldier, of course, has not been consthere was not the remotest element of chance in Lee's march on Gettysburg, as I will presently showarmy to converge on Gettysburg. A man of General Lee's consummate knowledge of the science of waan be no dispute about it; it is settled by General Lee himself beyond all controversy, and it is sand subsequently the Union army, arrived at General Lee's headquarters, in Chambersburg, with the i receiving this disturbing information that General Lee's first impulse was to bring Ewell back and Ewell, of a copy of the foregoing order of General Lee, with verbal instructions to move back, and in unison. This formal statement by General Lee made at the time, together with various ord[4 more...]
James Longstreet (search for this): chapter 1.22
d by General Lee himself beyond all controversy, and it is surprising that his statements have been so long overlooked. In the last days of June a scout of General Longstreet's, who had passed through Washington, and subsequently the Union army, arrived at General Lee's headquarters, in Chambersburg, with the information that Hoo9th, moved General Heth's Division to Cashtown, some eight miles from Gettysburg, following on the morning of the 30th with the division of General Pender. General Longstreet reports that he received orders at Chambersburg on the 29th to follow Hill and encamp at Greenwood. Meanwhile the advancing Federals, moving northward mo were thus menaced, it was resolved to prevent his further progress in that direction by concentrating our army on the east side of the mountains. Accordingly, Longstreet and Hill were directed to proceed from Chambersburg to Gettysburg, to which point General Ewell was also instructed to march from Carlisle. * * * Respectfull
Jefferson Davis (search for this): chapter 1.22
General Lee and the battle of Gettysburg. [from the Richmond Dispatch, December 8, 1895.] He planned to fight there. The concentration of his Forces—One mind directed All—Closing scenes of first Manassas—He kept his word. There is a popular impression throughout the country that the meeting of the two armies at Gettysburg was in large measure an accidental collision. Jefferson Davis, in his Short History of the Confederate States, says the position was not the choice of either side for a battle-field. The very general belief prevails, also, especially at the South, that the concentration of the Army of Northern Virginia at Gettysburg was brought about by mere chance, and was not part of a deliberate plan of the Confederate commander predicated upon his enemy's movements. This is a strange error concerning a very important matter, and all the more remarkable because such a view must inevitably lead to the conclusion that the Southern invading force was aimlessly drifti<
Leslie J. Perry (search for this): chapter 1.22
oint General Ewell was also instructed to march from Carlisle. * * * Respectfully submitted, R. E. Lee, General. Moving in unison. This formal statement by General Lee made at the time, together with various orders and movements detailed in the foregoing, all compiled from official and perfectly reliable sources, determine conclusively that all the divisions of the Confederate army were moving in unison, like a huge machine, toward a common centre, and with a common object, propelled by the comprehensive mind of its commanding general, who had and was following out a definite plan of operations, evolved as early as June 28th, when he first received information that the Union army had crossed the Potomac and was advancing, and were not set in motion by a temporary impulse growing out of a trivial raid for shoes at Gettysburg on the morning of July 1st. That was merely an incident in the concerted movement of a great army. Leslie J. Perry. Washington, December 1, 1895.
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