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rce of the middle ages, concentrated upon the Mediterranean Sea, had enriched the Italian republics, and had been chiefly engrossed by their citizens. Maritime enterprise now transferred its seat to the borders of the Atlantic, and became boundless in its range. It set before itself as its great problem the discovery of a pathway by sea to the Indies; and England, which like Spain and Portugal looked out upon the ocean, became a competitor for the unknown world. The wars of the houses of York and Lancaster 1496. had terminated with the intermarriage of the heirs of the two families; the spirit of commercial activity began to be successfully fostered; and the marts of England were frequented by Lombard adventurers. The fisheries of the north had long tempted the merchants of Bristol to an intercourse with Iceland; and had matured the nautical skill that could buffet the worst storms of the Atlantic. Nor is it impossible, that some uncertain traditions respecting the remote disco
Divers Voyages (search for this): chapter 5
trous battle of Pavia, is it probable, that the impoverished government could have sent forth another expedition? Did he relinquish the service of France for that of England? It is hardly a safe conjecture, 1527 that he was murdered in an encounter with savages, while on a voyage of discovery, which Henry VIII. had favored. Memoir of S. Cabot, 271—276. Hakluyt asserts, that Verrazzani was thrice on the coast of America, and that he gave a map of it to the English monarch. Hakl. Divers Voyages, 1582, quoted in Mem. of Cabot, p. 272. It is the common tradition, that he perished at sea, having been engaged in an expedition of which no tidings were ever heard. Such a report might easily be spread respecting a great navigator who had disappeared from the public view; and the rumor might be adopted by an incautious historian. It is probable, that Verrazzani had only retired from the fatigues of the life of a mariner; and, while others believed him buried in the ocean, he may have
John Verrazzani (search for this): chapter 5
ch, it was reluctantly confessed, had been first visited by the Cabots. The fisheries had for some years been successfully pursued; savages from the north-eastern coast had been 1508 brought to France; Charlevoix, N. F. i. 4. plans of colonization in North 1518 America had been suggested by De Lery and Saint Just; L'Escarbot, 21. Memoire, &c. 104. when at length Francis I., a monarch who had invited Da Vinci and Cellini to transplant the fine arts into his kingdom, employed John Verrazzani, another Florentine, to explore the new regions, which had alike excited curi- 1523 osity and hope. It was by way of the isle of Madeira, that the Italian, parting from a fleet which had cruised successfully along the shores of Spain, sailed for Amer- 1524 Jan. 17. ica, See Verrazzani's letter to Francis I., from Dieppe, July 8, 1524, in Hakluyt, III. 357—364, or in N. Y. Hist. Coll. i. 45—60. It is also in Ramusio. Compare Charlevoix, N. F. i. 5—8. with a single caravel, reso<
Venice (Italy) (search for this): chapter 5
r, although there were marks that the region was inhabited. He planted on the land a large cross with the flag of England, and from affection for the Republic of Venice, he added also the banner of St. Mark, which had never before been borne so far. On his homeward voyage he saw on his right hand two islands, which for want of pr the place of his end, and it has not even been ascertained in what country this finder of a continent first saw the light. His wife was a Venetian woman, but at Venice he had himself gained the rights of citizenship in 1476, only after the residence of fifteen years, which was required of aliens before denization. His second adily favored an expedition for northern discovery. Gaspar Cortereal See the leading document on the voyage of Cortereal, in a letter from Pietro Pasqualigo, Venetian ambassador in Portugal, written to his brother, October 19, 1501, in Paesi novamente ritrovati et Novo Mondo da Alberico Vesputio Florentino intitulato. L. VI.
Lisbon, as the great centre of maritime adventure. He came to insist with immovable resoluteness that the shortest route to the Indies lay across the Atlantic. By letters from the venerable Toscanelli, the illustrious astronomer of Florence, who had drawn a map of the world with eastern Asia rising over against Europe, he was riveted in his faith, and longed for the opportunity of proving its reality. After more than ten years of vain solicitations in Portugal, he left the banks of the Tagus, to seek the aid of Ferdinand and Isabella, rich in nautical experience, having watched the stars at sea from the Chap. I.} latitude of Iceland to near the equator at Elmina. Though yet longer baffled by the scepticism which knew not how to share his aspirations, he lost nothing of the grandeur of his conceptions, or the proud magnanimity of his character, or devotion to the sublime enterprise to which he held himself elected from his infancy by the promises of God; and when half resolved
Newport (Rhode Island, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
mother of her child, and attempted to kidnap a young woman. Such crimes can be prompted even by the feeble passion of curiosity, and the desire to gratify a vulgar wonder. The harbor of New York especially attracted notice, Chap. I.} 1524 April. for its great convenience and pleasantness; the eyes of the covetous could discern mineral wealth in the hills of New Jersey. Hakluyt, III. 360, 361. N. Y. Hist Coll. i. 52, 53. Moulton's New York, i. 138, 139. In the spacious haven of Newport, Verrazzani remained for fifteen days. The natives were the goodliest people that he had found in the whole voyage. They were liberal and friendly; yet so ignorant, that, though instruments of steel and iron were often exhibited, they did not form a conception of their use, nor learn to covet their possession. Hakluyt, III. 361. Moulton's New York, i. 147, 148. Miller, in N. Y. Hist. Coll. i. 25. Belknap's Am. Biog. i. 33. Leaving the waters of Rhode Island, the persevering 15
New England (United States) (search for this): chapter 5
Island, inscribed their adventures on the rocks of Taunton River, gave the name of Vinland to the south-east coasts of New England, and explored the inlets of our country as far as Carolina. But the story of the colonization of America by North-men. i. 33. Leaving the waters of Rhode Island, the persevering 1524 May 5. mariner sailed along the whole coast of New England to Nova Scotia, till he approached the latitude of fifty degrees. The natives of the more northern region were hostilw of a settlement at the south, De Monts explored and claimed for France the rivers, the 1605. coasts and the bays of New England, as far, at least, as Cape Cod. The numbers and hostility of the savages led him to delay a removal, since his colon future; and in a few years the castle St. Louis, so long the place 1624. of council against the Iroquois and against New England, was durably founded on a commanding cliff. In the same year, the viceroyalty was transferred to 1624. the religio
Florence, S. C. (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
ttracted to Lisbon, as the great centre of maritime adventure. He came to insist with immovable resoluteness that the shortest route to the Indies lay across the Atlantic. By letters from the venerable Toscanelli, the illustrious astronomer of Florence, who had drawn a map of the world with eastern Asia rising over against Europe, he was riveted in his faith, and longed for the opportunity of proving its reality. After more than ten years of vain solicitations in Portugal, he left the bankss overtaken by as terrible a tempest, as mariners ever encountered; and fifty days elapsed before the continent appeared in view. At length, in the latitude of Wilmington S. Miller, in N. Y. Hist. Coll. i. 23. In the Libreria Strozziana in Florence, there is a copious manuscript account of Verrazzani's voyage and discoveries. Tiraboschi, VII. 261, 262. Verrazzani could congratulate himself on beholding land Mar which had never been seen by any European. But no convenient harbor was foun
Cape Cod (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
o Port Royal. 1605 For an agricultural colony, a milder climate was more desirable; in view of a settlement at the south, De Monts explored and claimed for France the rivers, the 1605. coasts and the bays of New England, as far, at least, as Cape Cod. The numbers and hostility of the savages led him to delay a removal, since his colonists Chap. I.} 1606 were so few. Yet the purpose remained. Thrice, in the spring of the following year, did Dupont, his lieutenant, attempt to complete the n back by adverse winds; and at the third Aug. 28. attempt, his vessel was wrecked. Poutrincourt, who had visited France, and was now returned with supplies, himself renewed the design; but, meeting with Nov. 14. disasters among the shoals of Cape Cod, he, too, returned to Port Royal. There the first French settle- 1605 ment on the American continent had been made; two years before James River was discovered, and three years before a cabin had been raised in Canada. The possessions of Po
Annapolis (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
lucrative monopoly was added to the honors of territorial jurisdiction. Wealth and glory were alike expected. An expedition was prepared without delay, and left 1604. Mar. 7. the shores of France, not to return till a permanent French settlement should be made in America. All New France was now contained in two ships, which followed the well-known path to Nova Scotia. The summer glided away, while the emigrants trafficked with the natives and explored the coasts. The harbor called Annapolis after the conquest of Acadia by Queen Anne, an excellent harbor, though difficult of access possessing a small but navigable river, which abounded in fish, and is bordered by beautiful meadows, so pleased the imagination of Poutrincourt, a leader in the enterprise, that he sued for a grant of it from De Monts, and, naming it Port Royal, determined to reside there with his family. The company of De Monts made their first attempt at a settlement on the island of St. 1604. Croix, at the mou
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