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iumph of the more popular party; and its enact ments were made, with silent disregard of the nobility, by the exclusive consent of the commons. The wise, Statutes at large, II. 38, 39. moderate, and well-living Thomas Smith, who had advised martial law, and those who had established it, were disfranchised for two years. Methods of colonial 40-42. defence were adopted, and were, in the following years, 1691. improved by providing military stores, and establishing 64-68. a revenue; and, in May, the Huguenots were fully 1691. May 1. enfranchised, as though they had been freeborn citizens. Statutes II 58-60. The statute-book of South Carolina attests the moderation and liberality of the government, which derived its chief sanction from the people. But tranquillity did not return. As the revolution of 1688 respected the eights of the proprietaries, the insurrectionary government soon came to an end Factions multiplied in a colony which had as yet gained no moral unity. The lega
ure. Immediately after the return of the Quaker legislator, the Huguenots were once more and successfully enfranchised by the colonial legislature. Liberty of 1697 March 10. conscience was also conferred on all Christians, unhappily with the exception of Papists. This was the first Chap. XIX.} act in Carolina disfranchisinslature. The people constituted themselves the fountain of honor and of power. When the assembly Proud, App. IV. next came together, Markham could say to them, 1697. May 12. You are met, not by virtue of any writ of mine, but of a law made by yourselves. The people ruled, Chap. XIX.} and, after years of strife, all went hapby their representatives:—such was the voice of the most royalist assembly that could ever be convened in New York. What though the enactment was annulled by the 1697. English sovereign? The spirit lived, and was openly displayed. It was soon said by a royal governor to the mixed races of legislators in the province, There are
olony to the Great Charter of England, was not accepted by the crown. Again, in 1696, the inviolable claim of the colony to English rights and liberties was engrafted by the assembly on the act of establishment; and this also was disallowed. In 1700, the presence Chap. XIX.} and personal virtues of Bray, who saw Christianity only in the English Church, obtained by unanimity a law commanding conformity in every place of public worship. Once more the act was rejected in England from regard toithin his colony. The commonwealth, which had been as an infant, nestling under his wing, had ripened into self-reliance. Passing over all intermediate changes, the proprietary acknowledged the present validity of the old fundamental law. Let's 1700 April. make a constitution, said a member of the council, that may be firm and lasting to us and ours; and Penn invited them to keep what's good in the charter and frame of government, to lay aside what is burdensome, and to add what may best suit
h. The colonial oligarchy next looked for favor to an exclusive religion of state. Even the consent of nonconformists had been given to the public maintenance 1699. of one minister of the Church of England; and ortho- Statutes II. 135. doxy had, as in nearly every colony, been protected by 1703. the menace of disfranchisemep. XIX.} and, after years of strife, all went happily. Nothing was wanting but concert with the proprietary. Before the close of the century, William Penn was 1699 Nov. 30. once more within his colony. The commonwealth, which had been as an infant, nestling under his wing, had ripened into self-reliance. Passing over all inwere met by counter complaints, till New Hampshire was placed, with Massachusetts, under the government of Bellamont, and a judiciary, composed of men attached to 1699. the colony, was instituted. Then, and for years afterwards, followed scenes of confusion;—trials in the colonial courts, resulting always in verdicts against the
Scotch, zealous alike for liberty and property, were soon to be attracted. Already New England 1696 June 26. men were allured to the region that now stood circumstanced with the honor of a true Engty in 1692 the colony to the Great Charter of England, was not accepted by the crown. Again, in 1696, the inviolable claim of the colony to English rights and liberties was engrafted by the assembly authority, Markham dissolved the assembly. The legislature of the next year persevered, and, 1696. by its own authority, subject only to the assent of the Oct. proprietary, established a purely gan to be urged as a motive for oppressing the colonies. The affairs of the plantations were, in 1696, 1696. May. intrusted permanently to the commissioners who formed the board of trade; and all qu1696. May. intrusted permanently to the commissioners who formed the board of trade; and all questions on colonial liberty and affairs were decided from the point of view of English commerce. All former acts giving a monopoly of the colonial 12 Car II. c, XVIII. trade to England were renew
e minister of the Church of England; and ortho- Statutes II. 135. doxy had, as in nearly every colony, been protected by 1703. the menace of disfranchisement and prisons. In 1704, May 6. 1704. the high pretended Churchmen, having, by the arts Stppeared from the treasury, while the Narrows were still defenceless; and the assembly, awakened to distrust, by addresses 1703 June 19. to the governor and the queen, solicit a treasurer of its own appointment. The general revenue had been fixed the house of Hanover. But the object was not left out of mind. Lord Cornbury, who had in vain solicited money of Con- 1703. June. necticut, wrote home, that this vast continent would never be useful to England, till all the proprietary and Trumdeclared the independency the colonies thirst after is now notorious.—Commonwealth notions improve daily, wrote Quarry, in 1703; and, if it be not checked in time, the rights and privileges of English subjects will be thought too narrow. In 1705, it
rity, his personal virtues could not conciliate for him confidence. 1693. Despairing of success, he proposed that one of the proprietaries sh 1692 Oct. 21. of the English government to subject Pennsylvania to 1693 April 26 a royal commission; and, in April, 1693, Benjamin Fletcher,do not bear the great seal of the proprietary. We know the laws to 1693. May 25. be our laws, it was answered; and we are in the enjoyment o, who resolved on a petition to the king, by the hands of Fitz John 1693 Sept. Winthrop. To give the command of the militia, it was said, ton of command. Meantime, Fletcher, refusing to await the decision 1693 Oct. 26. in England, appeared in Hartford, and, after fruitless negond, acted independently. When the court met at Salem, six women of 1693. Jan. Andover, at once renouncing their confessions, treated the witles, he avers, were wrought in Boston. Believe his statements, and 1693 Sept. you must believe that his prayers healed diseases. But he was
ap. XIX.} act in Carolina disfranchising religious opinion. Soon after Archdale reached England, the work of proprietary legislation was renewed. The new code 1698. asserted the favorite maxim of the reformers of that day, that all power and dominion are most naturally founded in property. But this maxim, which, in England, ciety; and in 1692, Andrew Hamilton was accepted in the colony as governor under their commission. Thus did West New Jersey continue, with a short interruption in 1698, till the government was surrendered. But the law officers of 1694 the crown questioned even the temporary settlement, and the lords of trade claimed New Jersey rish peer, with a sound heart and honorable sympathies for popular freedom. He arrived in New York after the peace of Ryswick, with a commission extending to the 1698 April 2. borders of Canada, including all the northern British possessions, except Connecticut and Rhode Island. In New York, Lord Bellamont, who had served on th
unaltered purity. So it was with George 1691, 1692. Keith. Amidst the applause of the malignant opty as he had to the West Jersey Society; and in 1692, Andrew Hamilton was accepted in the colony as he appeal to the king, which had not been per- 1692 Jan. 7. mitted during their lives, was made by In 1692, the new government for New Hampshire 1692. Aug. 13. was organized by Usher. The civil hig; and, in the gloom of winter, among a people 1692. desponding at the loss of their old liberties, of the general court. The delusion of witch- 1692. Feb. craft would give opportunities of terriblcantations, being betrayed by her husband, was 1692. scourged by Parris, her master, into confessinalled in office. The triumph of Cotton Mather 1692. was perfect. Immediately a court of oyer and e house of representatives, which assembled in 1692. June 8 to July 2. June, was busy with its grie. Hardly was the verdict rendered, before the 1692. July 4. foreman made a statement of the ground[8 more...]
e as thou sayest, but thou feignest them out of thine own heart. And they left, for the instruction of future governors, this weighty truth:—To engage the affections of the people, no artifice is needful, but to let them be unmolested in the enjoyment of what belongs to them of right. Lord Cornbury had fulfilled his mission; more successful than any patriot, he had taught New York the necessity and the methods of incipient resistance. The assembly which met Lord Lovelace, his shortlived 1709. April. successor, began the contest that was never to cease but with independence. The crown demanded a permanent revenue, without appropriation; New York henceforward would raise only an annual revenue, and appropriate it specifically. Such was the inheritance of controversies provided for Robert Hunter, the friend of Swift, an adventurer, who came to his government in quest of good cheer. Here, he writes, is the finest air to live upon in the universe: the soil bears all things, but n
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