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Cayenne (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 2
y with England had begun. When Queen Elizabeth gave a charter to a first not very successful English East India company, France, under Richelieu, strug- Chap. XX.} gled also, though vainly, to share the great commerce with Asia. The same year in which England took possession of Barbadoes, Frenchmen occupied the half of St. Christopher's. Did England add half St. Christopher's, Nevis, and, at last, Jamaica,—France gained Martinique and Guadaloupe, with smaller islets, founded a colony at Cayenne, and, by the aid of bucaniers, took possession of the west of Hayti. England, by its devices of tariffs and prohibitions, and by the royal assent to the act of navigation, sought to call into action every power of production, hardly a year before 1664 to 1667 to Colbert hoped, in like manner, by artificial legislation, to foster the manufactures and finances of France, and to insure to that kingdom spacious seaports, canals, colonies, and a navy. The English East India company had but ju
West Indies (search for this): chapter 2
liamentary monarchy, in which government rested on property. France sustained the principle of legitimacy; England had selected its own sovereign, and to dispute his claims involved not only a question of national law, but of English independence. To these causes of animosity, springing from the rivalry in manufactures and in commercial stations, from contrasts in religion, philosophy, opinion, and government, there was added a struggle for territory in North America. Not only in the West Indies, in the East Indies, in Africa, were France and England neighbors,—over far the largest part of our country Louis XIV. claimed to be the sovereign; and the prelude to the overthrow of the European colonial system, which was sure to be also the overthrow of the mercantile system, was destined to be the mighty struggle for the central regions of our republic. The first permanent efforts of French enterprise, in colonizing America, preceded any permanent English settlement north of the P
Huron, Ind. (Indiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 2
spot 1639 was called St. Mary's, upon the banks of the Matchedash, the pleasant watercourse which joins Lake Toronto to Huron. There, at the humble house dedi- Creuxius, 493. cated to the Virgin, in one year, three thousand guests from the cabiy of the Incarnation, so famed for chastened piety, genius, and good judgment, toiled, though in vain, for the culture of Huron children. Meantime, a colony of the Hurons had been estab- 1637 lished in the vicinity of Quebec; and the name of Silhe Falls of St. Mary he had repaired to the June 13. Huron missions, and thence, with the escort of Ahasistari and other Huron braves, he descended by the Ottawa and St. Lawrence to Quebec. On his return Aug. 1. with a larger fleet of canoes, a binvasions of the Huron country. In vain did the French seek to engage New England as an 1648. ally in the contest. The Huron nation was doomed; the ancient clans of the Wyandots were to be exterminated or scattered; and the missionaries on the Ma
Japan (Japan) (search for this): chapter 2
rfect organization, and having for their end a control over opinion among the scholars and courts of Europe and throughout the habitable globe, the order of the Jesuits held, as its ruling maxims, the widest diffusion of its influence, and the closest internal unity. Immediately on its institution, their missionaries, kindling with a heroism that defied every danger and endured every toil, made their way to the ends of the earth; they raised the emblem of man's salvation on the Moluccas, in Japan, in India, in Thibet, in Cochin China, and in China; they penetrated Ethiopia, and reached the Abyssinians; they Chap. XX.} planted missions among the Caffres: in California, on the banks of the Marañhon, in the plains of Paraguay, they invited the wildest of barbarians to the civilization of Christianity. The genius of Champlain, whose comprehensive 1632 mind planned enduring establishments for French commerce, and a career of discovery that should carry the lilies of the Bourbons to
Cape Verde (Cape Verde) (search for this): chapter 2
surpassed in importance by the transatlantic conflicts with which they were identified. The mercantile system, being founded in error and injustice, was doomed not only itself to expire, but, by overthrowing the mighty fabric of the colonial system, to emancipate commerce, and open a boundless career to human hope. That colonial system all Western Europe had contributed to build. Even before the discovery of Amer- 1419. ica, Portugal had reached Madeira and the Azores, the 1448. Cape Verd Islands and Congo; within six years after 1449. the discovery of Hayti, the intrepid Vasco de Gama, 1484. following where no European, where none but Africans from Carthage, had preceded, turned the Cape of Good Hope, and arrived at Mozambique; and, passing the Arabian peninsula, landed at Calicut, and made an establishment at Cochin. Within a few short years, the brilliant temerity of Portugal achieved establishments on Western and Eastern Africa, in Arabia and Persia, in Hindostan and t
East India (search for this): chapter 2
n, to foster the manufactures and finances of France, and to insure to that kingdom spacious seaports, canals, colonies, and a navy. The English East India company had but just revived, under Charles II., when France also gave privileges to an East India commer- 1664 cial corporation; and, if the folly of that corporation in planting on the Island of Madagascar, where there was nothing to sell or to buy, effected its decline, still the banner of the Bourbons reached Malabar and Coro- 1675. ma animosity, springing from the rivalry in manufactures and in commercial stations, from contrasts in religion, philosophy, opinion, and government, there was added a struggle for territory in North America. Not only in the West Indies, in the East Indies, in Africa, were France and England neighbors,—over far the largest part of our country Louis XIV. claimed to be the sovereign; and the prelude to the overthrow of the European colonial system, which was sure to be also the overthrow of the m
Nova Scotia (Canada) (search for this): chapter 2
dged to obedience unto death. The whole strength of the colony lay in the missions. The government was weakened by the royal jealousy; the population hardly increased; there was 1646. no military force; and the trading company, deriving no income but from peltries and Indian traffic, had no motive to make large expenditures for protecting the settlements or promoting colonization. Thus the missionaries were left, almost alone, to contend against the thousands of braves that roamed over Acadia and the vast basin of the St. Lawrence. But what could sixty or seventy devotees accomplish amongst the Chap. XX.} countless wild tribes from Nova Scotia to Lake Superior? They were at war as well with nature as with savage inhumanity, and had to endure perils and sufferings under every form. The frail bark of the Franciscan Viel had been dashed in pieces, and the 1623 missionary drowned, as he was shooting a rapid, on his way from the Hurons. Father Anne de Noue, in the depth of wint
Mohawk (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 2
his words of farewell. Immediately on arriving at the Mohawk castles, he was received as a prisoner, and, against the voice of the Oct. 18. other nations, was condemned by the grand council of the Mohawks as an enchanter, who had blighted Chap. XX.} their harvest. Timid by nature, yet tranquil from zeal, he approached the cabin where the death-festival was kept, and, as he entered, received the death blow. His head was hung upon the palisades of the village, his body thrown into the Mohawk River. This was the signal for war. The Iroquois renewed their invasions of the Huron country. In vain did the French seek to engage New England as an 1648. ally in the contest. The Huron nation was doomed; the ancient clans of the Wyandots were to be exterminated or scattered; and the missionaries on the Matchedash shared the dangers of the tribes with whom they dwelt. Each sedentary mission was a special point of at- Relation 1648, 8-17. traction to the invader, and each, therefore,
Maine (Maine, United States) (search for this): chapter 2
north of the Potomac. Years before the Pilgrims anchored within Cape Cod, the Roman church had been planted, by missionaries from France, in the eastern moiety of Maine; and Le Caron, an unambi- 1615, 1616. tious Franciscan, the companion of Champlain, had penetrated the land of the Mohawks, had passed to the north into the huntiver can be heard calling for revenge.—I place a stone on their graves, said Pieskaret, that no one may move their bones. With greater sincerity, the Abenakis of Maine, touched by the charities of Silleri, had solicited missionaries. Conversion to Catholic Christianity would establish their warlike tribes as a wakeful barrier 1 and missionaries for the boundless west. The request was eagerly granted; and Gabriel 1656 Dreuillettes, the same who carried the cross through the forests of Maine, and Leonard Gareau, of old a missionary among the Hurons, were selected as the first religious envoys to a land of sacrifices, shadows, and deaths. The canoes ar
Calicut (Kerala, India) (search for this): chapter 2
reer to human hope. That colonial system all Western Europe had contributed to build. Even before the discovery of Amer- 1419. ica, Portugal had reached Madeira and the Azores, the 1448. Cape Verd Islands and Congo; within six years after 1449. the discovery of Hayti, the intrepid Vasco de Gama, 1484. following where no European, where none but Africans from Carthage, had preceded, turned the Cape of Good Hope, and arrived at Mozambique; and, passing the Arabian peninsula, landed at Calicut, and made an establishment at Cochin. Within a few short years, the brilliant temerity of Portugal achieved establishments on Western and Eastern Africa, in Arabia and Persia, in Hindostan and the Eastern isles, and in Brazil. The intense application of the system of monopoly, combined with the despotism of the sovereign and the priesthood, precipitated the decay of Portuguese commerce in advance of the decay of the mercantile system; and the Moors, the Persians, Holland, and Spain, di
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