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administration, came into the possession of England by conquest; and in a conquered country the law was held to be the pleasure of the king. On the fifth day after the capitulation, Rogers departed with two hundred rangers to carry English banners to the upper posts. Rogers: Journals, 197. At Frontenac, now Kingston, an Indian hunting-party brought them wild fowl and venison. At Niagara, they provided themselves with the fit costume of the wilderness. From Erie in the chilly days of November they went forward in boats, being the first considerable party of men whose tongue was the English that ever spread sails on Lake Erie or swept it with their oars. The Indians on the Lakes were at peace, united under Pontiac, the great chief of the Ottawas, happy in a country fruitful of corn and abounding in game. As the Americans advanced triumphantly towards the realms where the native huntsman had chased the deer through the unbroken woodlands, they were met at the mouth of a river
thing. We must resist them; and that by force. And they reasoned together on the necessity of a general attention to the militia, to their exercises and discipline; for they repeated, we must resist in arms. John Adams's Works, IV. 6. In September of chap. XVI.} 1760. that year, Bernard manifested the purpose of his appointment, by informing the legislature of Massachusetts that they derived blessings from their subjection to Great Britain. Subjection to Great Britain was a new doctrin demanded of the Supreme Court general writs of assistance; but the writs had been withheld, because Stephen Sewall, the chief justice of the province, a man of great integrity, respected and beloved by the people, doubted their legality. In September, Sewall died, to the universal sorrow of the province; and the character of his successor would control the decision of the court on the legality of writs of assistance, involving the whole subject of enforcing the British Acts of Trade; by the
b., 1760. I, said Fauquier, of Virginia, have never been prevailed on to grant one; though I have been tempted by large offers, and pitiful stories of relations lying in French dungeons for want of such flags. Fauquier to Pitt, 1760. I have very many letters on this subject. In vehement and imperative words, Pitt rebuked the practice; not with a view permanently to restrain the trade of the continent with the foreign islands, but only in time of war to distress the enemy by famine. In August, the same month in which this impassioned interdict was issued, Francis Bernard, whom the Board of Trade favored as the most willing friend to the English Church and to British authority, was removed from the government of New Jersey to that of Massachusetts. But the distrust that was never to be removed, had already planted itself very deeply in the province. These English, men said to one another, will overturn every thing. We must resist them; and that by force. And they reasoned toge
d shown how vain it was to negotiate away his Majesty's authority, since every new concession became a foundation for some new demand, and that of some new dispute; and they recommended that the constitution should be brought back to its proper principles, to restore to the crown, in the person of the proprietaries, its just prerogative, to check the growing influence of assemblies, by distinguishing, what they are perpetually confounding, the executive from the legislative power. When, in July, the subject was discussed before the Privy Council, Lord Mansfield made the extraordinary motion, that the attorney and solicitor general be instructed to report their opinion whether his Majesty could not disapprove of parts of an act and confirm other parts of it. Proprietary to Thomas Penn, 22 August, 1760. But so violent an attempt to extend the king's prerogative, at the expense of the people of the colonies and the proprietaries, met with no favor. At last, of the seventeen acts
inent. The capitulation included all Canada, which was said to extend to the crest of land dividing branches of Erie and Michigan from those of the Miami, the Wabash, and the Illinois rivers. Property and religion were cared for in the terms; but for civil liberty no stipulation was even thought of. Thus Canada, under the forms of a despotic administration, came into the possession of England by conquest; and in a conquered country the law was held to be the pleasure of the king. On the fifth day after the capitulation, Rogers departed with two hundred rangers to carry English banners to the upper posts. Rogers: Journals, 197. At Frontenac, now Kingston, an Indian hunting-party brought them wild fowl and venison. At Niagara, they provided themselves with the fit costume of the wilderness. From Erie in the chilly days of November they went forward in boats, being the first considerable party of men whose tongue was the English that ever spread sails on Lake Erie or swept it w
listened to of the possibility of failure. But Pitt's sagacity had foreseen and prepared for all. A fleet at his bidding was on its way to relieve the city; and to his wife, the sister of Lord Temple and George Grenville, he was able to write in June,—Join, my love, with me, in most humble and grateful thanks to the Almighty. The siege of Quebec was raised on the seventeenth of May, with every happy circumstance. The enemy left their camp standing, abandoned forty pieces of cannon. Swanton aims of the chap. XVI.} 1760. House of Commons, not only by raising the money, but by investing themselves with the sole application of it, and usurping by this means the most valuable prerogative of the executive power. The Board, therefore, in June, assured the cabinet ministers, that experience had shown how vain it was to negotiate away his Majesty's authority, since every new concession became a foundation for some new demand, and that of some new dispute; and they recommended that the co
October 25th, 1760 AD (search for this): chapter 16
erely, is entertained by the Americans, or ever will be, unless you grossly abuse them. Very true, rejoined Pratt; that I see will happen, and will produce the event. Quincy's Life of Quincy. 269. Peace with foreign states was to bring for America an alteration of charters, a new system of administration, a standing army, and for the support of that chap. XVI.} 1760. army a grant of an American revenue by a British parliament. The decision was settled, after eleven years reflection and experience, by Halifax and his associates at the Board of Trade, and for its execution needed only a prime minister and a resolute monarch to lend it countenance. In the midst of these schemes, surrounded by victory, the aged George the Second died suddenly of apoplexy; and on the morning of the twenty-fifth day of October, 1760, his grandson, the pupil of Leicester House, then but twenty-two years of age, while riding with the Earl of Bute, was overtaken by a secret message that he was king.
August 11th, 1760 AD (search for this): chapter 16
ditary council of privileged landholders, in imitation of the Lords of parliament. At the same time, he warned against the danger of applying a standing revenue to favorites, or bestowing beneficial employments on strangers alone, to the great discouragement of the people of the plantations. Influenced by a most favorable opinion of Colden's zeal for the rights of the crown, Lord Halifax conferred on him the vacant post of lieutenantgov-ernor of New York. Compare Colden to Halifax, 11 August, 1760, and Golden to John Pownall, 12 August, 1761. In the neighboring province of New Jersey, Francis Bernard, as its governor, a royalist, selected for office by Halifax, had, from 1758, the time of his arrival in America, been brooding over the plans for enlarging royal power which he afterwards reduced to form. But Pennsylvania, of all the colonies, led the van of what the royalists called Democracy. Its Assembly succeeded in obtaining its governor's assent to their favorite assessme
January, 1760 AD (search for this): chapter 16
; of Lyttleton, who, from South Carolina, had sent word that the root of all the difficulties of the king's servants lay in having no standing revenue, were kept in mind. It has been hinted to me, said the secretary of Maryland, that, at the peace, acts of parliament will be moved for amendment of government and a standing force in America, and that the colonies, for whose protection the force will be established, must bear at least the greatest share of charge. This, wrote Calvert, in January, 1760, Calvert to H. Sharpe, Janunary, 1760 will occasion a tax; and he made preparations to give the Board of Trade his answer to their propositions on the safest modes of raising a revenue in America by act of parliament. For all what you Americans say of your loyalty, observed Pratt, the attorney-general, better known in America as Lord Camden, to Franklin, and notwithstanding your boasted affection, you will one day set up for independence. No such idea, replied Franklin, sincerely,
Temple and George Grenville, he was able to write in June,—Join, my love, with me, in most humble and grateful thanks to the Almighty. The siege of Quebec was raised on the seventeenth of May, with every happy circumstance. The enemy left their camp standing, abandoned forty pieces of cannon. Swanton arrived there in the Vanguard on the fifteenth, and destroyed all the French shipping, six or seven in number. Happy, happy day! My joy and hurry are inexpressible. Pitt to Lady Hester, 27 June Amherst had been notified of the intended siege; chap. XVI.} 1760. but he persevered in the systematic and tardy plan which he had formed. When the spring opened, he had no difficulties to encounter in taking possession of Canada, but such as he himself should create. A country suffering from a four years scarcity, a disheartened, starving peasantry, the feeble remains of five or six battalions, wasted by incredible services, and not recruited from France, offered no opposition The p
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