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nite consequence of North America, which, by its increasing inhabitants, would consume British manufactures; by its trade, employ innumerable British ships; by its provisions, support the sugar islands; by its products, fit out the whole navy of England. Peace, too, was to be desired in behalf of England's ally, the only Protestant sovereign in Germany who could preserve the privileges of his religion chap. XVI.} 1760. from being trampled under foot. How calmly, said Bath, the King of Prussia possesses himself under distress! how ably he can extricate himself! having amazing resources in his own unbounded genius. The warm support of the Protestant nation of Great Britain must be called forth, or the war begun to wrest Silesia from him would, in the end, be found to be a war to overturn the liberties and religion of Germany. Peace was, moreover, to be solicited from love to political freedom. The increase of the navy, army, and public debt, and the consequent influence of
Erie (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
n the continent. The capitulation included all Canada, which was said to extend to the crest of land dividing branches of Erie and Michigan from those of the Miami, the Wabash, and the Illinois rivers. Property and religion were cared for in the tety brought them wild fowl and venison. At Niagara, they provided themselves with the fit costume of the wilderness. From Erie in the chilly days of November they went forward in boats, being the first considerable party of men whose tongue was the unmolested, with an escort of warriors, to assist in driving his herd of oxen along the shore. To the tribes southeast of Erie he sent word that the strangers came with his consent; yet while he studied to inform himself how wool could be changed in white men within his dominions but at his pleasure. After this interview, Rogers hastened to the straits which connect Erie and St. Clair, and took possession of Detroit. Thus was Michigan won by Great Britain, yet not for itself. There were th
Chatham (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 16
to Canada, perhaps, if we might have Canada without any sacrifice at all, we ought not to desire it. There should be a balance of power in America. And the writer revealed his connections by advising, that, as the war had been an American war, Lord Halifax, one of the few whom inclinations, studies, opportunities, and talents had made perfectly masters of the state and interests of the colonies, should be appointed to negotiate peace. Private letters Almon's Anecdotes of the Earl of Chatham, III. Appendix M. from Guadaloupe gave warning that a country of such vast resources, and so distant as North America, could never remain long subject to Britain. The acquisition of Canada would strengthen America to revolt. One can foresee these events clearly, said the unnamed writer; it is no gift of prophecy. It is a natural and unavoidable consequence, and must appear so to every man whose head is not too much affected with popular madness or political enthusiasm. The islands, fro
Sandusky Bay (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
hief of the Ottawas, happy in a country fruitful of corn and abounding in game. As the Americans advanced triumphantly towards the realms where the native huntsman had chased the deer through the unbroken woodlands, they were met at the mouth of a river Rogers: Concise Account of North America, 240. Rogers: Journal, 214. The River was not the Cuyahoga, but one forty-six miles to the eastward of the river then called the Elk, and one hundred nine and a half miles to the eastward from Sandusky Bay. Howe's Ohio, 125. See the maps of Evans, 1755, and of T. Pownall, 1776. On parting from Pontiac, Rogers says he kept a southwesterly course for about forty-eight miles; which could not be done by a vessel sailing from Cleveland to Sandusky. Rogers seems not accurate, though professing to be so to the half or the quarter of a mile. The distances appear to refer to the Ashtabula River; the name Chogage to the Geauga. by a deputation of Ottawas from the west. Pontiac, said they, is t
New Jersey (New Jersey, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
s zeal for the rights of the crown, Lord Halifax conferred on him the vacant post of lieutenantgov-ernor of New York. Compare Colden to Halifax, 11 August, 1760, and Golden to John Pownall, 12 August, 1761. In the neighboring province of New Jersey, Francis Bernard, as its governor, a royalist, selected for office by Halifax, had, from 1758, the time of his arrival in America, been brooding over the plans for enlarging royal power which he afterwards reduced to form. But Pennsylvania, of famine. In August, the same month in which this impassioned interdict was issued, Francis Bernard, whom the Board of Trade favored as the most willing friend to the English Church and to British authority, was removed from the government of New Jersey to that of Massachusetts. But the distrust that was never to be removed, had already planted itself very deeply in the province. These English, men said to one another, will overturn every thing. We must resist them; and that by force. And
Quincy (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
modes of raising a revenue in America by act of parliament. For all what you Americans say of your loyalty, observed Pratt, the attorney-general, better known in America as Lord Camden, to Franklin, and notwithstanding your boasted affection, you will one day set up for independence. No such idea, replied Franklin, sincerely, is entertained by the Americans, or ever will be, unless you grossly abuse them. Very true, rejoined Pratt; that I see will happen, and will produce the event. Quincy's Life of Quincy. 269. Peace with foreign states was to bring for America an alteration of charters, a new system of administration, a standing army, and for the support of that chap. XVI.} 1760. army a grant of an American revenue by a British parliament. The decision was settled, after eleven years reflection and experience, by Halifax and his associates at the Board of Trade, and for its execution needed only a prime minister and a resolute monarch to lend it countenance. In the mi
Lake Superior (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
event the assuring to the British name and nation a stability and permanency that no man acquainted with history durst have hoped for, till our American possessions opened the chap. XVI.} 1760. pleasing prospect. To the objection, that England could supply only the seacoast, that the inhabitants of the interior must manufacture for themselves, Franklin evoked from futurity the splendid vision of wide navigation on the great rivers and inland seas of America. Even the poor Indian on Lake Superior was already able to pay for wares furnished from French and English factories; and would not industrious farmers, hereafter settled in those countries, be better able to pay for what should be brought them? The trade to the West India Islands, he continued, is undoubtedly a valuable one; but it has long been at a stand. The trade to our northern colonies is not only greater, but yearly increasing with the increase of people; and even in a greater proportion, as the people increase in
Fauquier (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
even seen Franklin, as we know from a memoir by Franklin himself. Gordon adds, that Pitt, in 1759 or 1760, wrote to Fauquier, of Virginia, that they should tax the colonies when the war was over, and that Fauquier dissuaded from it. I have seen Fauquier's correspondence; both the letters to him, and his replies; and there is nothing in either of them giving a shadow of corroboration to the statement. Gordon may have built on rumor, or carelessly substituted the name of Pitt for Halifax and theharpe to his brother Philip, 8 Feb., 1760. I, said Fauquier, of Virginia, have never been prevailed on to grant one; though I have been tempted by large offers, and pitiful stories of relations lying in French dungeons for want of such flags. Fauquier to Pitt, 1760. I have very many letters on this subject. In vehement and imperative words, Pitt rebuked the practice; not with a view permanently to restrain the trade of the continent with the foreign islands, but only in time of war to distre
Massachusetts (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
the colonies, and were persuaded more than ever of the necessity of radical changes in the government in favor of the central authority. While they waited for peace as the proper season for their interference, Thomas Pownall, the Governor of Massachusetts, a statesman who had generous feelings, but no logic, flashes of sagacity, but no clear comprehension, who from inclination associated with liberal men, even while he framed plans for strengthening the prerogative, affirmed, and many times rehe same month in which this impassioned interdict was issued, Francis Bernard, whom the Board of Trade favored as the most willing friend to the English Church and to British authority, was removed from the government of New Jersey to that of Massachusetts. But the distrust that was never to be removed, had already planted itself very deeply in the province. These English, men said to one another, will overturn every thing. We must resist them; and that by force. And they reasoned together
Frontenac (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
ami, the Wabash, and the Illinois rivers. Property and religion were cared for in the terms; but for civil liberty no stipulation was even thought of. Thus Canada, under the forms of a despotic administration, came into the possession of England by conquest; and in a conquered country the law was held to be the pleasure of the king. On the fifth day after the capitulation, Rogers departed with two hundred rangers to carry English banners to the upper posts. Rogers: Journals, 197. At Frontenac, now Kingston, an Indian hunting-party brought them wild fowl and venison. At Niagara, they provided themselves with the fit costume of the wilderness. From Erie in the chilly days of November they went forward in boats, being the first considerable party of men whose tongue was the English that ever spread sails on Lake Erie or swept it with their oars. The Indians on the Lakes were at peace, united under Pontiac, the great chief of the Ottawas, happy in a country fruitful of corn and
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