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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 8
. Still the little army was unable to move, for want of horses and carriages; but Franklin, by his great influence in Pennsylvania, supplied both, with a promptitude and probity which extorted praise from Braddock and unanimous thanks from the Assemnts of manors, and other appropriated and settled lands, was nearly thirty thousand pounds. True and Impartial State of Pennsylvania, 125. Sharpe would not convene the Assembly of Maryland, be- chap. VIII.} 1755. cause it was fond of imitating the precedents of Pennsylvania. And the governors, proprietary as well as royal, reciprocally assured each other that nothing could be done in their colonies without an act of parliament. Correspondence of Morris and Sharpe. Lt. Gov. Sharpe to So remained south of the Ristigouche. Lieut. Gov. Belcher to Lords of Trade, 14 April, 1761. Once those who dwelt in Pennsylvania presented a humble petition to the Earl of Loudoun, then the British commander-in-chief in America; and the cold-heart
Providence, R. I. (Rhode Island, United States) (search for this): chapter 8
very moment, said one whose eye was on Washing ton, to see him fall. Craik, in Marshall's Life of Washington, II. 19. Nothing but the superin tending care of Providence could have saved him. An Indian chief—I suppose a Shawnee—singled him out with his rifle; and bade others of his warriors do the same. Two horses were killed savage. Same to Mr. Custis, of Arlington. Death, wrote Washington, was levelling my companions on every side of me; but, by the all-powerful dispensations of Providence, I have been protected. Washington to his brother, 18 July, 1755. To the public, said Davies, a learned divine, in the following month, I point out that heroic youth, Colonel Washington, whom I cannot but hope Providence has preserved in so signal a manner for some important service to his country. Who is Mr. Washington? asked Lord Halifax a few months later. I know nothing of him he added, but that they say he behaved in Braddock's action as bravely as if he really loved the whist
Nova Scotia (Canada) (search for this): chapter 8
Chapter 8: England and France Contend for the Ohio valley and for Acadia.—Newcastle's administration continued. 1755. anarchy lay at the heart of the ins Of these, a detachment took part in establishing the sovereignty of England in Acadia. That peninsular region—abounding in harbors and in forests; rich in its oceanlast, after repeated conquests and restorations, the treaty of Utrecht conceded Acadia, or Nova Scotia, to Great Britain. Yet the name of Annapolis, the presence of rdly fifteen miles wide, and formed the natural boundary between New France and Acadia. The French at Beau-Sejour had passed the previous winter in unsuspecting tr after the ancient device of Oriental despotism, that the French inhabitants of Acadia should be carried away into captivity to other parts of the British dominions. y inflicted, so bitter and so perennial, as fell upon the French inhabitants of Acadia. We have been true, they said of themselves, to our religion, and true to ours
Cumberland (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 8
cuse that he had the orders Sir John Sinclair to Sir T. Robinson, 3 Sept. 1755. of the dying general, and being himself resolved, in midsummer, to evacuate Fort Cumberland, and hurry to Philadelphia for winter-quarters. Accordingly, the next day they all retreated. At night Braddock roused from his lethargy to say, We shall bel looks well, wrote Morris; the force of Canada has vanished away in an instant; and of a sudden the news of Braddock's defeat, and the shameful evacuation of Fort Cumberland by Dunbar, threw the people of the central provinces into the greatest consternation. Lt. Gov. Dinwiddie to Lords of Trade, 6 Sept. 1755. H. Sharpe to C. Coken-hearted sufferers, before chap. VIII.} 1755. the last of them were removed. The embarkation of the inhabitants goes on but slowly, wrote Monckton, from Fort Cumberland, near which he had burned three hamlets; the most part of the wives of the men we have prisoners are gone off with their children, in hopes I would not send o
Newfoundland (Canada) (search for this): chapter 8
d avowed only the intention to resist encroachments on her territory; and when the French ambassador at London expressed some uneasiness on the occasion, he was assured that certainly the English would not begin. Flassan: Histoire de la Diplomatie Francoise, VI., 84. At six o'clock, on the evening of the 7th of June, the Alcide, the Lys, and the Dauphin, that had for several days been separated from their squadron, fell in with the British fleet off Cape Race, the southernmost point of Newfoundland. Between ten and eleven in the morning of the eighth, the Alcide, under Hocquart, was within hearing of the Dunkirk, a vessel of sixty guns, commanded by Howe. Are we at peace or war? asked Hocquart. The French affirm, that the answer to them was, Peace, Peace; till Boscawen gave the signal to engage. Precis des Faits, 278. Walpole's Memoires of Geo. II., i., 889. Barrow's Life of Howe. Howe, who was as brave as he was taciturn, obeyed the order promptly; and the Alcide and Lys y
France (France) (search for this): chapter 8
Chapter 8: England and France Contend for the Ohio valley and for Acadia.—Newcastle's administration continued. 1755. anarchy lay at the heart of the insurpose, but delayed the period, of taxation by parliament. Between England and France peace existed under ratified treaties; it was proposed not to invade Canada, bur souls. They promised submission to England; but such was the love with which France had inspired them, they would not fight against its standard or renounce its naly to the tyranny. Under pretence of fearing that they might rise in behalf of France, or seek shelter in Canada, or convey provisions to the French garrisons, they le-mindedness and sincerity, refusing to pledge themselves to bear arms against France. The English were masters of the sea, were undisputed lords of the country, anlifax and his colleagues to Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence, 29 October, 1754. France remembered the descendants of her sons in the hour of their affliction, and as
Miramichi (Connecticut, United States) (search for this): chapter 8
l them, they will. Did a prisoner seek to escape? He was shot down by the sentinel. Yet some fled to Quebec; more than three thousand had withdrawn to Miiramichi, and the region south of the Ristigouche; Petition of the French Acadians at Miramichi, presented to De Vaudreuil, the Governor of Canada, in July 1756. Compare Lieut. Gov. Belcher to Lords of Trade, 14 April, 1761. some found rest on the banks of the St. John's and its branches; some found a lair in their native forests; some wthe human race keep the record of sorrows so wantonly inflicted, so bitter and so perennial, as fell upon the French inhabitants of Acadia. We have been true, they said of themselves, to our religion, and true to ourselves; yet nature appears to consider us only as the objects of public vengeance. From a petition of those at Miramichi, in Memoires sur les Affaires du Canada. The hand of the English official seemed under a spell with regard to them; and was never uplifted but to curse them.
Oriental (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 8
adians cowered before their masters, hoping forbear- chap. VIII.} 1755. ance; willing to take an oath of fealty to England; in their single-mindedness and sincerity, refusing to pledge themselves to bear arms against France. The English were masters of the sea, were undisputed lords of the country, and could exercise clemency without apprehension. Not a whisper gave a warning of their purpose, till it was ripe for execution. But it had been determined upon after the ancient device of Oriental despotism, that the French inhabitants of Acadia should be carried away into captivity to other parts of the British dominions. They have laid aside all thought of taking the oaths of allegiance voluntarily; thus in August, 1754, Lawrence, the Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, had written of them to Lord Halifax. They possess the best and largest tract of land in this province; if they refuse the oaths, it would be much better that they were away. Lawrence to the Lords of Trade, 1 Aug
England (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 8
itions; while Roman Catholic missionaries persevered in propagating the faith of their church among the villages of the Abenakis. At last, after repeated conquests and restorations, the treaty of Utrecht conceded Acadia, or Nova Scotia, to Great Britain. Yet the name of Annapolis, the presence of a feeble English garrison, and the emigration of hardly five or six English families, were nearly all that marked the supremacy of England. The old inhabitants remained on the soil which they had they were away. Lawrence to the Lords of Trade, 1 August, 1754. The Lords of Trade in reply veiled their wishes under the decorous form of suggestions. By the treaty of Utrecht, said they of the French Acadians, their becoming subjects of Great Britain is made an express condition of their continuance after the expiration of a year; they cannot become subjects but by taking the oaths required of subjects; and therefore it may be a question, whether their refusal to take such oaths will not
Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) (search for this): chapter 8
ness to devote life and fortune for the commonwealth, but from the firm resolve never to place its concentrated strength under an authority independent of itself. It desired not union only, but self-direction. The events of the summer strengthened the purpose, but delayed the period, of taxation by parliament. Between England and France peace existed under ratified treaties; it was proposed not to invade Canada, but only to repel encroachments on the frontier from the Ohio to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. For this end, four expeditions were concerted by Braddock at Alexandria. Lawrence, the lieutenanternor of Nova Scotia, was to reduce that province chap. VIII.} 1755. according to the English interpretation of its boundaries; Johnson, from his long acquaintance with the Six Nations, was selected to enroll Mohawk warriors in British pay, and to conduct an army of provincial militia and Indians against Crown Point; Shirley proposed to win laurels by driving the French from Niagara;
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