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it of independence in the heart of a people of courage and honor, to drive every man of Carolina into active service in the British army, and to force the dwellers in the land of the sun, which ripened passions as fierce as the clime, to become the instruments of their own subjection. On the twenty-second of May, confiscation of prop- 22. erty and other punishments were denounced against all who should thereafter oppose the king in arms, or hinder any one from joining his forces. On the first June 1. of June, a proclamation by the commissioners, Clinton and Arbuthnot, offered pardon to the penitent, on their immediate return to allegiance; to the loyal, Chap. XIV.} 1780. June 1. the promise of their former political immunities, ineluding freedom from taxation except by their own legislature. This policy of moderation might have familiarized the Carolinians once more to the British government; but the proclamation was not communicated to Cornwallis; so that when, three weeks l
Graves discovered the French fleet at anchor in the mouth of the Chesapeake. De Grasse, though eighteen hundred of his seamen and ninety officers were on duty in James river, ordered his ships to slip their cables, turn out from the anchorage ground, and form the line of battle. The action began at four o'clock in the afternoon, and continued till about sunset. The British sustained so great a loss that, after remaining five days in sight of the French, they returned to New York. On the first day of their return voyage, 11. they evacuated and burned The Terrible, a ship of the line, so much had it been damaged in the engagement. De Grasse, now undisturbed master of the Chesapeake, on his way back to his anchoring ground captured two British ships, each of thirtytwo guns, and he found de Barras safely at anchor in Chap. XXV.} 1781. the bay. Leaving the allied troops to descend by water from Elk river and Baltimore, Washington, with Rochambeau and Chastellux, riding sixty mi
ashington, that, although the force under his command, including militia, was nearly eighteen thousand, he suffered the Hudson river to be crossed on the 23. 24. twenty-third and twenty-fourth of August without seizing the opportunity to give annoyance. Von Wurmb, a Hessian colonel, who had command at King's bridge, again and again reported that the allied armies were obviously preparing to move against Cornwallis; but the general insisted that the appearances were but a stratagem. On the second Sept. 2. of September, it first broke on his mind that Washington was moving southward. In the allied camp all was joy. The love of freedom penetrated not the French officers only, but inflamed the soldiers. Every one of them was proud of being a defender of the young republic. The new principles entered into their souls, and became a part of their nature. On the fifth of September, they encamped at Chester. Never had the Chap. XXV.} 1781. Aug. 30. French seen a man penetrated with
army. The late accession of force makes the enemy in Carolina too formidable to be resisted without powerful succors from Virginia. And he gave orders to Steuben: Make the defence of the state as little as possible interfere with the measures for succoring General Greene. Everything is to be apprehended if he is not powerfully supported from Virginia. Jefferson made the advice of Washington his rule of conduct, though accused in his own state of doing too much for the Carolinas. On the third day after the battle, Greene wrote to Washington: Virginia has given me every support I could wish. Letters to Washington, III. 267. In his report of the day of Guilford, Greene hardly did himself justice; public opinion took no note of his mistakes in the order of battle, and acknowledged the greatness of his general plan and its successful result. Virginia and the whole south confided in his capacity. On the eighteenth, committing his wounded to the 18. tender mercies of the A
r, as success depended on secrecy, the legislature could not be consulted; but a few trusty men-George Wythe, George Mason, and Thomas Jefferson —were taken to counsel, and the expedition was resolved upon. On the second of January, 1778, Clark 1778. received his instructions and twelve hundred pounds in paper money. On the next day Wythe, Mason, and Jefferson pledged their influence to secure a grant of three hundred acres of land to every man who should engage in the expedition. On the fourth Clark left Williamsburg, clothed with all the authority he could wish. At Redstone-old-fort, he prepared boats, light artillery, and ammunition. For men he relied solely on volunteer backwoodsmen of south-western Pennsylvania, and from what we now call East Tennessee, Chap. VIII.} 1778. and Kentucky. On the twenty-fourth of June, the day of an eclipse of the sun, his boats passed over the falls of the Ohio. After leaving a small garrison in an island near them, his party consisted of f
hundred and six British invalids who were descending the Pedee river. A large boat from Georgetown, laden with stores for the British at Cheraw, was seized by Americans. A general revolt in the public mind against British authority invited Gates onwards. To the encouragements of others the general added his own illusions; he was confident that Cornwallis, with detached troops from his main body, was gone to Savannah, Kapp's Kalb, 213. and from his camp on the Pedee he announced on the fourth, by 4. a proclamation, that their late triumphant and insulting foes had retreated with precipitation and dismay on the approach of his numerous, well-appointed, and formidable army; forgiveness was promised to those who had been forced to profess allegiance, and pardon was withheld only from those apostate sons of America who should hereafter support the enemy. On the seventh, at the Cross Roads, the troops with 7. Gates made a junction with the North Carolina militia under Caswell, a
lieved that it could succeed. On the twenty-sixth of February, Friesland, famous Feb. 26. for the spirit of liberty in its people, who had retained in their own hands the election of their regencies, declared in favor of receiving the American envoy; and its vote was the index of the opinion of the nation. A month later, the states of Hol- March 28. land, yielding to petitions from all the principal towns, followed the example. Zealand adhered on the fourth of April; Overyssel, on the fifth; Gronin- April 4. gen, on the ninth; Utrecht, on the tenth; and 10. Guelderland, on the seventeenth. On the day which 17. chanced to be the seventh anniversary of the battle 19. of Lexington, their High Mightinesses, the statesgeneral, reporting the unanimous decision of the seven provinces, resolved that John Adams should be received. The Dutch republic was the second power in the Chap. XXVI.} 1782. world to recognise the independence of the United States of America, and the act pr
es, in which the Americans had been involved only from their dependence on England, were effaced for ever; all Frenchmen became their friends, and the king of France was proclaimed the protector of the rights of mankind. In Washington's camp Lafayette smiled as he read, that his government dated the independence of America from the moment of its own declaration, and said prophetically: Therein lies a principle of national sovereignty which one day will be recalled to them at home. On the sixth the alliance was 6. celebrated at Valley Forge. After a salute of thirteen cannon and a running fire of all the musketry, the army, drawn up in two lines, shouted: Long Chap. IV.} 1778. May 8. live the king of France! and again: Long live the friendly European powers! and the ceremonies were closed by a huzza for the American states. In an address to the inhabitants of the United States, congress assumed that independence was secured, and they proclaimed the existence of a new people,
ept out scouts on every side, scorning surprise; and on the second of October one of them brought him news 2. that rejoiced his heart, that one-half of the whole population beyond the mountains were drawing near. Following a path between King's Mountain and the main ridge of the Alleghanies, the western army, so they called themselves, under Campbell, already more than thirteen hundred strong, marched Chap. XVI.} 1780. Oct. 6. to the Cowpens on Broad river, where, on the evening of the sixth, they were joined by Williams with four hundred men. From Williams they learned nearly where Ferguson's party was encamped; and a council of the principal officers decided to go that very night to strike them by surprise. For this end they picked out nine hundred of their best horsemen; at eight o'clock on that same evening they began their march. Riding all night, with the moon two days past its first quarter, on the afternoon of the seventh they were at the foot of King's Mountain. 7.
l motives of Great Britain under a cloud of obloquy relating to Amsterdam, and by demands impossible to be complied with. The memorial was not to be presented if the ambassador had certain information that the majority of the provinces would refuse to join the maritime league of the North. We do not wish, wrote Stormont, to give a deep wound to our old and natural allies. Our object is to cure their madness by stunning them into their senses. Stormont to Yorke, 4 Nov., 1780. On the sixth, Yorke represented to the stadholder the opportunity of the republic for repentance and amendment. The prince, shrugging his shoulders, answered: I foresee consequences which may be fatal to my house and the republic. Yorke replied that the stadholder might do a secondary and passive kind of service by starting difficulties and delays to hamper the conclusion of the fresh instructions to the ministers at Petersburg. The stadholder answered: England cannot impute a wish for war to those wh
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