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e hundred acres of land at the end of the war; pensions were promised to disabled soldiers and to the widows of those who should find their death in the service; half-pay for life was voted to the officers. Each division of the militia was required to furnish for the service one Chap. X.} 1779. May. able-bodied man out of every twenty-five, to be drafted by fair and impartial lot. Hening, x. 82. The law defining citizenship will be elsewhere explained; the code in which Jefferson, Wythe, and Pendleton adapted the laws of Virginia to reason, the welfare of the whole people, and the republican form of government, was laid before the legislature. The law of descents abolished the rights of primogeniture, and distributed real as well as personal property, equally among brothers and sisters. The punishment of death was forbidden, except for treason and murder. A bill was brought in to organize schools in every county, at the expense of its inhabitants, in proportion to the ge
Middlebrook (search for this): chapter 11
he great expedition was more tardy. Its command, which Gates declined, devolved on Sullivan, to whom Washington in May gave repeatedly the May. instruction: Move as light as possible even from the first onset. Should time be lost in transporting the troops and stores, the provisions will be consumed, and the whole enterprise may be defeated. Reject every article that can be dispensed with; this is an extraordinary case, and requires extraordinary attention. Washington to Sullivan, Middlebrook, 31 May, 1779. Yet Sullivan made insatiable demands Chap. X.} 1779. on the government of Pennsylvania. While he was wasting time in finding fault and writing strange theological essays, the British and Indian partisans near Fort Schuyler surprised and captured twenty-nine mowers. Savages under Macdonell laid waste the country on the west bank of the Susquehanna, till the Indians, by his own report, were glutted with plunder, prisoners, and scalps. Thirty miles of a closely settled c
es the loyal associated refugees, who were impatient to obtain an independent organization under Tryon and William Franklin. Clinton wrote that his resources were insufficient for active operations:lands. A pillaging expedition, sent to punish the patriotism of Connecticut, was intrusted to Tryon. The fleet and transports arrived off New Haven; and, at two in the morning of the fifth of Jult them no time to execute the intention of General Smith to burn the town. At East Haven, where Tryon commanded, dwelling-houses were fired, and cattle wantonly killed; but his troops were in like m- 11. walk, and burned its houses, barns, and places of public worship. Sir George Collier and Tryon, the British admiral and general, in their address to the inhabitants of Connecticut, said: The rvivors were gorged with plunder. The town of New London was selected as the next victim; but Tryon was recalled to New York by a disaster which had befallen the British. No sooner had they stron
nded to Genesee; on the right, detachments reached Cayuga lake. After destroying eighteen villages and their fields of corn, Sullivan, whose army had suffered for want of supplies, returned to New. Jersey. Meantime, a small party from Fort Pitt, under command of Colonel Brodhead, broke up the towns of the Senecas upon the upper branch of the Alleghany. The manifest inability of Great Britain to protect the Six Nations inclined them at last to desire neutrality. In June the British general Maclean, who com- June. manded in Nova Scotia, established a British post of six hundred men at what is now Castine, on Penobscot bay. To dislodge the intruders, the Massachusetts legislature sent forth nineteen armed ships, Chap. X.} 1779. June. sloops, and brigs; two of them continental vessels, the rest privateers or belonging to the state. The flotilla carried more than three hundred guns, and was attended by twenty-four transports, having on board nearly a thousand men. So large an A
enty-nine mowers. Savages under Macdonell laid waste the country on the west bank of the Susquehanna, till the Indians, by his own report, were glutted with plunder, prisoners, and scalps. Thirty miles of a closely settled country were burned. Brandt and his crew consumed with fire all the settlement of Minisink, one fort excepted. Over a party of a hundred and fifty men, by whom they were pursued, they gained the advantage, taking more than forty scalps Brandt to Bolton, 29 July, 1779. aBrandt to Bolton, 29 July, 1779. and one prisoner. The best part of the season was gone when Sullivan, on the last of July, moved from Wyoming. His arrival at Tioga sent terror to the Indians. Sev- July. eral of their chiefs said to Colonel Bolton in council: Why does not the great king, our father, assist us? Our villages will be cut off, and we can no longer fight his battles. Bolton to Haldimand, 16 Aug., 1779. On the twenty-second of August, the day after he was joined by New York troops under General James Au
—in all about eight hundred—had constructed at Newtown; and they took the warning to retire before a party which was sent against them could strike them in the rear. The march into the country of the Senecas on the left extended to Genesee; on the right, detachments reached Cayuga lake. After destroying eighteen villages and their fields of corn, Sullivan, whose army had suffered for want of supplies, returned to New. Jersey. Meantime, a small party from Fort Pitt, under command of Colonel Brodhead, broke up the towns of the Senecas upon the upper branch of the Alleghany. The manifest inability of Great Britain to protect the Six Nations inclined them at last to desire neutrality. In June the British general Maclean, who com- June. manded in Nova Scotia, established a British post of six hundred men at what is now Castine, on Penobscot bay. To dislodge the intruders, the Massachusetts legislature sent forth nineteen armed ships, Chap. X.} 1779. June. sloops, and brigs; tw
Adam Smith (search for this): chapter 11
on. The fleet and transports arrived off New Haven; and, at two in the morning of the fifth of July, one party July 5. landed suddenly on the west of the town, another on the east. Everything was abandoned to plunder: vessels in the harbor, public stores, and the warehouses near the sound, were destroyed by fire. The soldiers, demoralized by license, lost all discipline, 6. and the next morning retired before the Connecticut militia, who left them no time to execute the intention of General Smith to burn the town. At East Haven, where Tryon commanded, dwelling-houses were fired, and cattle wantonly killed; but his troops were in like manner driven to their ships. Some unarmed inhabitants had been barbarously murdered, others carried away as prisoners. The British ranks were debased by the large infusion of convicts and vagabonds recruited from the jails of Germany. On the afternoon of the seventh, the expedition 7. landed near Fairfield. The village, a century and a quart
Thomas Pownall (search for this): chapter 11
hat, in the coldest winter of the century, the virtue of the army was put to the severest trial; and that their sufferings for want of food, and of clothes and blankets, were borne with the most heroic patience. In this hour of affliction, Thomas Pownall, a member of parliament, who, from observation and research and long civil service in the central states and as governor of Massachusetts, knew the United States as thoroughly as any man in Britain, published in England, in the form of a memoth America, as being, what she is, an independent state. The new empire of America is like a giant ready to run its course. The fostering care with which the rival powers of Europe will nurse it, ensures its establishment beyond all doubt or danger. So prophesied Pownall to the English world and to Europe in the first month of 1780. Since the issue of the war is to proceed in a great part from the influence of European powers, it behooves us now to study the course of their intervention.
t. Two advance parties of Chap. X.} 1779. July. 16. twenty men each, in one of which seventeen out of the twenty were killed or wounded, removed the abattis and other obstructions. Wayne, leading on a regiment, was wounded in the head, but, supported by his aids, still went forward. The two columns, heedless of musketry and grape-shot, gained the centre of the works nearly at the same moment. On the right Fleury struck the enemy's standard with his own hand, and was instantly joined by Stewart, who commanded the van of the left. British authorities declare that the Americans would have been fully justified in putting the garrison to the sword; but continental soldiers scorned to take the lives of a vanquished foe begging for mercy, and not one man was put to death but in fair combat. Of the Americans, but fifteen were killed; of the British, sixty-three; and five hundred and forty-three officers and privates were made prisoners. The war was marked by no more brilliant achievem
Spice Islands (search for this): chapter 11
ep root. The nature of the coast and of the winds renders marine navigation a perpetually moving intercourse of communion; and the nature of the rivers renders inland navigation but a further process of that communion; all which becomes, as it were, a one vital principle of life, extended through a one organized being, one nation. Will that most enterprising spirit be stopped at Cape Horn, or not pass the Cape of Good Hope? Before long they will be found trading in the South Sea, in Spice Islands, and in China. This fostering happiness in North America doth produce progressive population. They have increased nearly the double in eighteen years. Commerce will open the door to emigration. By constant intercommunion, America will every day approach nearer and nearer to Europe. Unless the great potentates of Europe can station cherubim Chap. X.} 1780 Jan. at every avenue with a flaming sword that turns every way, to prevent man's quitting this old world, multitudes of thei
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