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Stockholm (Sweden) (search for this): chapter 13
porting with energetic representations those of other neutral nations. In an interview with Panin, the Swedish envoy invited the Russian court to join that of Stockholm in forming a combined fleet to protect the trade of the north. Denmark, he said, would no doubt subscribe to the plan, and the commerce of the three countries, just emerging from his Austrian war, intervened. Russia had acted precipitately without intending to offend France and without proper concert with the courts of Stockholm and Copenhagen. Frederic to Goltz, 17 and 24 April, 1779. Through the explanations of the Chap. XII.} 1779 king of Prussia, every displeasure was removed fr to her envoys in Sweden, Denmark, and the Hague, before she informed her minister for foreign affairs of what had been done. A Russian courier was expedited to Stockholm, and thence to Copenhagen, the Hague, Paris, and Madrid. Goertz to Frederic, 7 March, 1780. On the twenty-second of February, Potemkin announced the measure t
ere the use of them would involve a conflict with Great Britain. During the summer the flag of Denmark, of Sweden, of Prussia, had been disregarded by British privateers, and they severally demanded of England explanations. Vergennes seized the her dignity and equity, if she will make common Chap. XII.} 1778. cause with Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and the king of Prussia. She would render to Europe a great service if she would bring the king of England to juster principles on the freedom and Copenhagen. Frederic to Goltz, 17 and 24 April, 1779. Through the explanations of the Chap. XII.} 1779 king of Prussia, every displeasure was removed from the mind of Vergennes, and his answer to the Russian note drew from Count Panin the neutral rights; and the Russian 1779. envoy at London, no less than the envoys of Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Prussia, delivered a memorial to the British government. To detach Russia from the number of the complainants, Harris, in Janua
Rotterdam (Netherlands) (search for this): chapter 13
of the world. Frederic to Solms, 14 Aug., 1779. During the whole of the year 1779, the Nether- Chap. XII.} 1779. lands continued to suffer from the conflicting aggressions of France and Great Britain. The former sought to influence the states-general by confining its concession of commercial advantages in French ports to the towns which voted for unlimited convoy. In the states of Holland it was carried for all merchant vessels destined to the ports of France by a great majority, Rotterdam and the other chief cities joining Amsterdam, and the nobles being equally divided; but the states-general, in which Zeeland took the lead, and was followed by Gelderland, Groningen, and Overyssel, from motives of prudence rejected the resolution. Notwithstanding this moderation, a memorial from the British ambassador announced that Dutch vessels, carrying timber to ports of France, as by treaty with England they had the right to do, would be seized even though escorted by ships of war. I
Holland (Netherlands) (search for this): chapter 13
erce between the two nations, and promised to communicate to the states-general their commercial treaty with France. The Dutch government through all its organs met this only overture of the Americans by silence and total neglect. It was neither ptrade only must give way to those founded on the dearest interests of the two nations, on liberty and religion. But the Dutch would not concede that the case provided for Chap. XII.} 1779. by treaty had arisen, and denied the right of England to olland had unreservedly withdrawn its obnoxious demands. On the evening before the twenty-seventh of December, seventeen Dutch mer- Dec. 27. chant vessels, laden with hemp, iron, pitch, and tar, left the Texel under the escort of five ships of war the morning of the thirtieth, they 30. descried a British fleet, by which they were surrounded just before sunset. The Dutch admiral, refusing to permit his convoy to be visited, Fielding, the British commander, replied that it would then be done
United States (United States) (search for this): chapter 13
In 1778, after France became connected with the United States, England looked to Russia for aid, the United StUnited States to the Dutch republic for goodwill. The former, though aware of the disinclination Chap. XII.} 1778. ofants of Amsterdam saw in the independence of the United States a virtual repeal of the British navigation acts; The commercial treaty between France and the United States was, about the same time, delivered to the grande two powers, when the independence of the United States of America should be recognised by the English. Dewith a copy of the commercial treaty between the United States and France, was, near the end of October, communaul Jones, a Scot by birth in the service of the United States, sailed from l'orient as commander of a squadronules which she had proclaimed. The voice of the United States on the subject was uttered immediately by John A their connections with the war, we must relate its events in the south and in the north of the United States.
Haarlem (Netherlands) (search for this): chapter 13
r possessions in the two Indies, imposed upon them the most perfect neu- Chap. XII.} 1778. trality. But neutrality to be respected needs to be strong. As England did not disguise her aggressive intentions, the city of Amsterdam and van Berckel sought to strengthen the Dutch navy, but were thwarted by Prince Louis, Fagel, and the stadholder. The English party favored an increase of the army; and, to the great discontent of the stadholder, they were defeated by the deputies of Amsterdam, Haarlem, Dort, and Delft. The Dutch were still brave, provident, and capable of acts of magnanimity; but they were betrayed by their selfish executive and the consequent want of unity of action. In April, 1778, the American commissioners at April 28 Paris,—Franklin, Arthur Lee, and John Adams,—in a letter to the grand pensionary, van Bleiswijck, proposed a good understanding and commerce between the two nations, and promised to communicate to the states-general their commercial treaty with Fra
Malaga (Spain) (search for this): chapter 13
report, a strong memorial was drawn up under the inspection of the empress herself, and a reference to the just reproaches of the courts of Madrid and Versailles against Great Britain for troubling the liberty of commerce was added by her own express order. Hardly had the Spanish representative at Petersburg forwarded the memorial by a courier to his government, when letters from the Russian consul at Cadiz announced that the St. Nicholas, bearing the Russian flag and bound with corn to Malaga, had Chap. XII.} 1780. been brought into Cadiz, its cargo disposed of to the best bidder, and its crew treated with inhumanity. The empress felt this second aggression as a deliberate outrage on her flag, and following the impulses of her own mind she seized the opportunity to adopt, seemingly on the urgency of Great Britain, a general measure for the protection of the commerce of Russia as a neutral power against all the belligerents and on every sea. She preceded the measure by signing a
Scotland (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 13
forty guns (many of them unserviceable), the Alliance of thirty-six guns, both American ships of war; the Pallas, a French frigate of thirty-two; and the Vengeance, a French brig of twelve guns. They ranged the western coast of Ireland, turned Scotland, and, cruising off Flamborough Head, descried the British merchant fleet from the Baltic under the convoy of the Serapis of forty-four guns, and the Countess of Scarborough of twenty guns. An hour after sunset, on the twenty-third of Septemben entered the Texel with its Oct. 4. prizes. On hearing of their arrival, the British ambassador, of himself and again under instructions, reclaimed the captured British ships and their crews, who had been taken by the pirate, Paul Jones, of Scotland, a rebel and a traitor. They, he insisted, are to be treated as pirates whose letters of marque have 29. not emanated from a sovereign power. The grand pensionary would not have the name of pirate applied to officers bearing the commissions o
Bergen county (New Jersey, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
was raised over the two prizes and every ship but the Alliance; and four days before the end of the year Paul Jones, with his Eng- Dec. 27. lish captures, left the Texel. An American frigate, near the end of September, had entered the port of Bergen with two rich prizes. Sept. Yielding to the British envoy at Copenhagen, Bernstorff, the Danish minister, seized the occasion to publish an ordinance forbidding the sale of prizes, until they should have been condemned in a court Chap. XII.} 1ed into the ordinance the declaration, that, as the king of Denmark had recognised neither the independence nor the flag of America, its vessels could not be suffered to bring their prizes into Danish harbors. The two which had been brought into Bergen were set free; but, to avoid continual reclamations, two others, which in December were taken to Christiansand, were only forced to leave the harbor. Bismarck to Frederic, 6 and 23 Oct., 6 Nov., and 8 Dec., 1779. Wrapt up in the belief tha
, Harris rushed to Potemkin for consolation. What can have operated so singular 1780. a revolution? demanded he, with eagerness and anxiety. Potemkin replied: You have chosen an unlucky moment. The new favorite lies dangerously sick. The empress is absorbed in this one passion. She repugns every exertion. Count Panin times his counsels with address; my influence is at an end. Harris fell ill. Everybody knew that Panin and Osterman of the foreign office, and the grand duke, afterwards Paul the Third, were discontented with his intrigues; and Catharine herself, meeting Goertz, asked playfully: What can have given Sir James Harris the jaundice? Has anything happened to vex him? And is he so choleric? Goertz to Frederic, 7 Jan., 1780. Unremitted attention was all the while given to the defence of neutral rights; and the Russian 1779. envoy at London, no less than the envoys of Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Prussia, delivered a memorial to the British government.
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