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ishes kept the field. Mounting his partisans, he intercepted British supplies of all sorts, and sent parties within fourteen miles of Winnsborough. Having ascertained the number and position of his troops, Cornwallis despatched a party under Major Wemyss against him. After a march of twenty-four miles with mounted Chap. XVI.} 1780. Nov. infantry, Wemyss reached Fishdam on Broad river, the camp of General Sumpter, and at the head of his corps charged the picket. The attack was repelled; he hWemyss reached Fishdam on Broad river, the camp of General Sumpter, and at the head of his corps charged the picket. The attack was repelled; he himself was wounded and taken prisoner. A memorandum was found upon him of houses burned by his command. He had hanged Adam Cusack, a Carolinian, who had neither given his parole nor accepted protection nor served in the patriot army; yet his captors would not harm a man who was their prisoner. The position of the British in the upper country became precarious. Sumpter passed the Broad river, formed a junction with Clark and Brennan, and threatened Ninety-Six. Tarleton was therefore sudden
Arthur Campbell (search for this): chapter 17
commander and some of his active officers, Colonel Isaac Shelby to Colonel Arthur Campbell, 12 Oct., 1780. and returned to the attack with additional ardor. Ts, Protocol of the officers; about ten minutes, Colonel W. Campbell to Colonel Arthur Campbell, 20 Oct., 1780; about fifteen minutes, Colonel Isaac Shelby to ColonelColonel Arthur Campbell, 12 Oct., 1780. when the right and left wings of the Americans, advancing upon their flank and rear, the fire became general all around. For fiftyisoners was six hundred and forty-eight. On the American side the regiment of Campbell suffered more than any other in the action; the total loss was twenty-eight ki. XVI.} 1780. Oct. of the gallows at Camden, Ninety-Six, and Augusta. At once Campbell intervened, and in general orders, by threatening the delinquents with certain and effectual punishment, secured protection to the prisoners. Campbell's General Orders, 11 Oct., 1780. Just below the forks of the Catawba the tidings of th
, in number eleven hundred and twenty-five, of whom one hundred and twenty-five were regulars, were posted on its summit, confident that they could not be forced from so advantageous a post, to which the approach was precipitously steep, the slaty rock cropping out in craggy cliffs and forming natural breastworks along its sides and on its heights. The Americans dismounted, and, though inferior in numbers, formed themselves into four columns. A part of Cleaveland's regiment headed by Major Winston, and Colonel Sevier's regiment, formed a large column on the right wing. The other part of Cleaveland's regiment, headed by Cleaveland himself, and the regiment of Williams, composed the left wing. The post of extreme danger was assigned to the column formed by Campbell's regiment on the right Chap. XVI.} 1780. Oct. centre, and Shelby's regiment on the left centre; so that Sevier's right nearly adjoined Shelby's left. The right and left wings were to pass the position of Ferguson, a
reemen on the Watauga, among whom slavery was scarcely known. The backwoodsmen, though remote from the world, love their fellow-men. In the pure air and life of the mountain and the forest, they join serenity with courage. They felt for those who had fled to them; with one heart they resolved to restore the suppliants to their homes, and for that purpose formed themselves into regiments under Isaac Shelby and John Sevier. Shelby despatched a messenger to William Campbell on the forks of Holston; and the field-officers of southwestern Virginia unanimously resolved that he, with four hundred men, should join in the expedition. An express was sent to Colonel Cleaveland of North Carolina; and all were to meet at Burk county court-house, on the waters of the Catawba. The three regiments from the west of the Alleghanies under Campbell, Shelby, and Sevier, and the North Carolina fugitives under Macdowell, assembled on the twenty-fifth of September at Watauga. On the next 25. day—each
Rawlins Lowndes (search for this): chapter 17
vated. Men deriving their livelihood from the labor of slaves ceased to respect labor, and shunned it as a disgrace. Some had not the courage to face the idea of poverty for themselves, still less for their wives and children. Many fainted at the hard option between submission and ruin. Charles Pinckney, lately president of the South Carolina senate, classing himself among those who from the hurry and confusion of the times had been misled, desired to show every mark of allegiance. Rawlins Lowndes, who but a few months before had been president of the state of South Carolina, excused himself for having reluctantly given way to necessity, and accepted any test that might be required to prove that, with the unrestrained dictates of his own mind, he now attached himself to the royal government. Henry Middleton, president of the first American congress, though still partial to a cause for which he had been so long engaged, promised to do nothing to keep up the spirit of independence
d. We are come to the series of events which closed the American contest and restored peace to the world. In Europe the sovereigns of Prussia, of Austria, of Russia, were offering their mediation; the united Netherlands were struggling to preserve their neutrality; France was straining every nerve to cope with her rival in the four quarters of the globe; Spain was exhausting her resources for the conquest Chap. XVI.} 1780. of Gibraltar; but the incidents which overthrew the ministry of North, and reconciled Great Britain to America, had their springs in South Carolina. Cornwallis, elated with success and hope, prepared for the northward march which was to conduct him from victory to victory, till he should restore all America south of Delaware to its allegiance. He was made to believe that North Carolina would rise to welcome him, and, in the train of his flatterers, he carried Martin, its former governor, who was to re-enter on his office. He requested Clinton to detach th
rd, he accepted the suggestions of Martin and Tarleton, and the like, that severity was the true mode of all people in that part of the country. Tarleton's legion had laid it waste to inspire terror; On receiving this letter, Cornwallis ordered Tarleton to march with the light infantry, the Britishthe Catawba the tidings of the defeat reached Tarleton; his party in all haste rejoined Cornwallis. ifth of November, as he de- Nov. 5. spatched Tarleton in pursuit of him. This officer and his corpshe defied an attack. But just at that moment Tarleton was recalled in haste to repel new dangers imlark and Brennan, and threatened Ninety-Six. Tarleton was therefore suddenly recalled from the pursnother followed for his support. Apprised of Tarleton's approach, Sumpter posted himself strongly on the afternoon of the twentieth of November, Tarleton drew 20. near in advance of his light infanto lieutenants, and one-third of its privates, Tarleton retreated, leaving his wounded to the mercy o
Henry Strachey (search for this): chapter 17
prisoners, and captured twenty-six of the escort. Colonel Marion, wrote Cornwallis, so wrought on the minds of the people, that there was scarcely an inhabitant between the Pedee and the Santee that was not in arms against us. Some parties even crossed the Santee and carried terror to the gates of Charleston. Balfour, the commandant of Charleston, wrote home: In vain we expected loyalty and attachment from the inhabitants; they are the same stuff as compose all Americans. Balfour to Strachey, 30 Aug., 1780, in Strachey Papers, 79, 80. The British his- Chap. XVI.} 1780. torian of the war, who was then in South Carolina, relates that almost the whole country seemed upon the eve of a revolt. In the second week of September, when the heats Sept. of summer had abated, the earlier cereal grains had been harvested and the maize was nearly ripe, Cornwallis began his projected march. He relied on the loyalists of North Carolina to recruit his army. On his left, Major Patrick Ferg
came general all around. For fifty-five minutes longer the fire Chap. XVI.} 1780. Oct. on both sides was heavy and almost incessant. The regulars with bayonets could only make a momentary impression. At last, the right wing gained the summit of the eminence, and the position of the British was no longer tenable. Ferguson having been killed, the enemy attempted to retreat along the top of the ridge; but, finding themselves held in check by the brave men of Williams and Cleaveland, Captain Depeyster, the commanding officer of the British, hoisted a flag. The firing immediately ceased; the enemy laid down their arms and surrendered themselves prisoners at discretion. The loss of the British on that day was at least eleven hundred and four. Four hundred and fifty-six of them were either killed, or too severely wounded to leave the ground; the number of prisoners was six hundred and forty-eight. On the American side the regiment of Campbell suffered more than any other in the ac
march which was to conduct him from victory to victory, till he should restore all America south of Delaware to its allegiance. He was made to believe that North Carolina would rise to welcome him, and, in the train of his flatterers, he carried Martin, its former governor, who was to re-enter on his office. He requested Clinton to detach three thousand men to establish a post on the Chesapeake bay; and Clinton knew too well the wishes of the British government to venture to refuse. In carrying out his plan, the first measure of Cornwallis was a reign of terror. Professing to regard South Carolina as restored to the dominion of George the Third, he accepted the suggestions of Martin and Tarleton, and the like, that severity was the true mode to hold the recovered province. He therefore addressed the most stringent orders to the commandants at Ninety-Six and other posts, to imprison all who would not take up arms for the king, and to seize or destroy their whole property. He mos
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