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Mecklenburg (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 17
ppearance on the frontiers of a numerous enemy from settlements beyond the mountains, whose very names had been unknown to the British, took Cornwallis by surprise, and their success was fatal to his intended expedition. He had hoped to step with ease from one Carolina to the other, and from these to the conquest of Virginia; and he had now no choice but to retreat. On the evening of the fourteenth, his troops began 14. their march back from Charlotte to the Catawba ford. The men of Mecklenburg and Rowan counties had disputed his advance; they now harassed his foraging parties, intercepted his despatches, and cut off his communications. Soldiers of the militia. Chap. XVI.} 1780. Oct. hung on his rear. Twenty wagons were captured, laden with stores and the knapsacks of the light infantry legion. Single men would ride within gunshot of the retreating army, discharge their rifles, and escape. The Catawba ford was crossed with difficulty on account of a great fall of rain.
England (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 17
was straining every nerve to cope with her rival in the four quarters of the globe; Spain was exhausting her resources for the conquest Chap. XVI.} 1780. of Gibraltar; but the incidents which overthrew the ministry of North, and reconciled Great Britain to America, had their springs in South Carolina. Cornwallis, elated with success and hope, prepared for the northward march which was to conduct him from victory to victory, till he should restore all America south of Delaware to its allegmountaineers might be diverted to their own immediate concerns. Moreover, Cornwallis gave orders to the reenforce-ment of three thousand sent by Clinton into the Chesapeake to embark for Cape Fear river. So ended the first attempt of Cornwallis to penetrate to Virginia. He was driven back by the spontaneous risings of the southern and south-western people; and the unwholesome exhalations of autumn swept men from every garrison in the low country faster than Great Britain could replace them.
Russia (Russia) (search for this): chapter 17
in-chief, the one man on whom rested the hopes of the ministry for the successful termination of the war. His friends disparaged the ability of Sir Henry Clinton, accused him of hating his younger and more enterprising compeer, and censured him for leaving at the south forces disproportioned to the service for which they were required. We are come to the series of events which closed the American contest and restored peace to the world. In Europe the sovereigns of Prussia, of Austria, of Russia, were offering their mediation; the united Netherlands were struggling to preserve their neutrality; France was straining every nerve to cope with her rival in the four quarters of the globe; Spain was exhausting her resources for the conquest Chap. XVI.} 1780. of Gibraltar; but the incidents which overthrew the ministry of North, and reconciled Great Britain to America, had their springs in South Carolina. Cornwallis, elated with success and hope, prepared for the northward march which
Georgia (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 17
rses, cattle, plate, household furniture, books, bonds, deeds, and other property. To patriots no alternative was left but to fight against their country and their consciences, or to encounter exile and poverty. The custom of military executions of Carolinians taken in arms was vigorously maintained, and the chiefs of the Cherokees were at that very time on their way to Augusta to receive the presents which were to stimulate their activity. Aware of their coming, Clark, a fugitive from Georgia, forced his way back with one hundred riflemen; having joined to them a body of woodsmen, he defeated the British garrison under Colonel Brown at Augusta, and captured the costly presents designed for the Cherokees. The moment was critical; for Cornwallis, in his eagerness to draw strength to his own army, had not left a post or a soldier between Augusta and Savannah, and the alienated people had returned most reluctantly to a state of obedience. With a corps of one hundred provincials a
France (France) (search for this): chapter 17
s friends disparaged the ability of Sir Henry Clinton, accused him of hating his younger and more enterprising compeer, and censured him for leaving at the south forces disproportioned to the service for which they were required. We are come to the series of events which closed the American contest and restored peace to the world. In Europe the sovereigns of Prussia, of Austria, of Russia, were offering their mediation; the united Netherlands were struggling to preserve their neutrality; France was straining every nerve to cope with her rival in the four quarters of the globe; Spain was exhausting her resources for the conquest Chap. XVI.} 1780. of Gibraltar; but the incidents which overthrew the ministry of North, and reconciled Great Britain to America, had their springs in South Carolina. Cornwallis, elated with success and hope, prepared for the northward march which was to conduct him from victory to victory, till he should restore all America south of Delaware to its all
Garden Hill (Vermont, United States) (search for this): chapter 17
dsmen, he defeated the British garrison under Colonel Brown at Augusta, and captured the costly presents designed for the Cherokees. The moment was critical; for Cornwallis, in his eagerness to draw strength to his own army, had not left a post or a soldier between Augusta and Savannah, and the alienated people had returned most reluctantly to a state of obedience. With a corps of one hundred provincials and one hundred Chap. XVI.} 1780. Sept. Cherokees, Brown maintained a position on Garden Hill for nearly a week, when he was rescued by Cruger from Ninety-Six. At his approach, the Americans retired. On the pursuit some of them were scalped and some taken prisoners. Of the latter, Captain Ashby and twelve others were hanged under the eyes of Brown; thirteen who were delivered to the Cherokees were killed by tortures, or by the tomahawk, or were thrown into fires. Thirty in all were put to death by the orders of Brown. Cruger desired to waylay and capture the retreating part
Saint Marks (Kansas, United States) (search for this): chapter 17
majesty of character, the timid good were abashed and their oppressors were rebuked. His persuasive example of republican virtue could not be endured; and, therefore, eleven days after the American defeat, he and the equally inflexible Arthur Rutledge and many others were early in the morning taken from their houses by armed parties, and transported to St. Augustine in violation of their stipulated rights. Gadsden and others refused to give a new parole, and were immured in the castle of St. Mark. The system of slaveholding kept away from defensive service not only more than half the population, whom the planters would not suffer to be armed, but the numerous bodies who must watch the black men, Chap. XVI.} 1780. if they were to be kept in bondage while war was raging. Moreover, the moral force of their owners was apt to become enervated. Men deriving their livelihood from the labor of slaves ceased to respect labor, and shunned it as a disgrace. Some had not the courage to
Bennington, Vt. (Vermont, United States) (search for this): chapter 17
, and Augusta. At once Campbell intervened, and in general orders, by threatening the delinquents with certain and effectual punishment, secured protection to the prisoners. Campbell's General Orders, 11 Oct., 1780. Just below the forks of the Catawba the tidings of the defeat reached Tarleton; his party in all haste rejoined Cornwallis. The victory at King's Mountain, which in the spirit of the American soldiers was like the rising at Concord, in its effects like the successes at Bennington, changed the aspect of the war. The loyalists of North Carolina no longer dared rise. It fired the patriots of the two Carolinas with fresh zeal. It encouraged the fragments of the defeated and scattered American army to seek each other and organize themselves anew. It quickened the North Carolina legislature to earnest efforts. It encouraged Virginia to devote her resources to the country south of her border. The appearance on the frontiers of a numerous enemy from settlements beyond
Alleghany Mountains (United States) (search for this): chapter 17
of the mountains, and left them no chance of safety but in fleeing beyond the Alleghanies. During these events, Cornwallis encountered no serious impediment tillhouse, on the waters of the Catawba. The three regiments from the west of the Alleghanies under Campbell, Shelby, and Sevier, and the North Carolina fugitives underrovisions—they began the ride over the mountains, where the passes through the Alleghanies are the highest. Not even a bridle-path led through the forest, nor was tandant. Ferguson, who had pursued the party of Macdowell to the foot of the Alleghanies, and had spread the terror of invasion beyond them, moved eastwardly towarng near. Following a path between King's Mountain and the main ridge of the Alleghanies, the western army, so they called themselves, under Campbell, already mora ridge that branches from the north-west to the south-east from a spur of the Alleghanies. The British, in number eleven hundred and twenty-five, of whom one hundr
Wilkes (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 17
are the highest. Not even a bridle-path led through the forest, nor was there a house for forty miles between the Watauga and the Catawba. The men left their families in secluded valleys, distant one from the other, exposed not only to parties of royalists, but of Indians. In the evening of the thirtieth, they 30. formed a junction with the regiment of Colonel Ben- Chap. XVI.} 1780. Oct. 1. jamin Cleaveland, consisting of three hundred and fifty men from the North Carolina counties of Wilkes and Surrey. The next day Macdowell was despatched to request Gates to send them a general officer; till he should arrive, Campbell was chosen to act as commandant. Ferguson, who had pursued the party of Macdowell to the foot of the Alleghanies, and had spread the terror of invasion beyond them, moved eastwardly towards Cornwallis by a road from Buffalo ford to King's Mountain, which offered ground for a strong encampment. Of the parties against him he thus wrote to Cornwallis: They are
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