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of Washington was encamped at Morristown. On the east of the Passaic, the Jersey brigade under General Maxwell was stationed at Connecticut Farms, and three hundred of the Jersey militia occupied Elizabethtown. On the sixth of June, the Brit- June 6. ish landed at Elizabethtown Point, but very slowly, from a scarcity of boats. The brigadier who commanded the vanguard was early wounded and disabled. Seven hours were lost in bridging a marsh which stopped their way. On the morning of the seventh, the American militia, under Colonel Dayton, 7. having had timely warning, retired before the enemy from Elizabethtown; but with the aid of volunteers from the country people, who flew to arms, and of small patrolling parties of continental troops, they harassed the British all the way on their march of five or six miles to Connecticut Farms. James Caldwell, the presbyterian minister of that place, was known to have inspired his people with his own patriotic zeal. A British soldier, put
twelve thousand men to the United States, as the best way of pursuing the war actively; and Lafayette had of his own motion given the like advice to Vergennes, with whom he had formed relations of friendship. The cabinet adopted the measure in its principle, but vacillated as to the number of the French contingent. For the command Count de Rochambeau was selected, not by court favor, but from the consideration in which he was held by the troops. Goltz to Frederic, 3 March, 1780. On the tenth of July, Admiral de Ternay with a squadron of ten Chap. XVIII.} 1780. July 10. ships of war, three of them ships of the line, convoyed the detachment of about six thousand men with Rochambeau into the harbor of Newport. To an address from the general assembly of Rhode Island, then sitting in Newport, the count answered: The French troops are restrained by the strictest discipline; and, acting under General Washington, will live with the Americans as their brethren. I assure the general a
by luck the British admiralty of that day, tired of the Keppels and the Palisers, the Chap. XVIII.} 1780. mutinous and the incompetent, put in command of the expedition that was to relieve Gibraltar and rule the seas of the West Indies. One of the king's younger sons served on board his fleet as midshipman. He took his squadron to sea on the twenty-ninth of December, 1779. On the eighth of January, 1780, Jan. 8. he captured seven vessels of war and fifteen sail of merchantmen. On the sixteenth, he encountered off 16. Cape St. Vincent, the Spanish squadron of Languara, very inferior to his own, and easily took or destroyed a great part of it. Having victualled the garrison of Gibraltar, and relieved Minorca, on the thirteenth Feb. 13. of February he set sail for the West Indies. At St. Lucie he received letters from his wife, saying: Everybody is beyond measure delighted as well as astonished at your success; from his daughter: Everybody almost adores you, and every mouth is f
to the Vulture, ship of war, which rode at anchor just above Teller's point, in Haverstraw bay, promising on Wednesday evening to send a person on board with a boat and a flag of truce. This letter of Arnold reached Clinton on Tuesday 19. evening, and he took his measures without delay. Troops were embarked on the Hudson river under the superintendence of Sir George Rodney, and the embarkation disguised by a rumor of an intended expedition into the Chesapeake. On the morning of the twentieth, the British ad- 20. jutant-general, taking his life in his hand, prepared to carry out his orders. To diminish the dangers to which the service exposed him, the commanderin-chief, before his departure, cautioned him not to change his dress, and not to take papers. At Dobbs Ferry, he embarked on the river, and, as the tide was favorable, reached the Vulture at about an hour after sunset, and declared to its captain that he was ready to attend General Arnold's summons when and where he p
military manoeuvre. Troops sent up the Hudson river as if to take the Americans in the rear induced Washington to move his camp to Rockaway bridge, confiding the post at Short Hills to two brigades under the command of Greene. Early on the twenty-third, the British Chap. XVIII.} 1780. June 23. advanced in two compact divisions from Elizabethtown Point to Springfield. The column on the right had to ford the river before they could drive Major Lee from one of the bridges over the Passaic. At King's ferry. It was already dark before they passed the American post at Verplanck's point under the excuse that they were going up the river, and to keep up that pretence they turned in for the night near Crompond. Very 23. early on the twenty-third, they were in the saddle. Two miles and a half north of Pine's Bridge, over the Croton, Smith, assuring Andre that the rest of the way he would meet only British parties, or cow boys as they were called, and having charged him to take the in
ing a reward for their services, nor leaving their names. What passed between Andre and Jameson is not known. The result of the interview was, that on the twenty-fourth the prisoner was ordered by Jameson 24. to be taken to Arnold; but on the sharp remonstrance of Major Tallmadge, the next in rank, the order was countermanded, and he was confined at Old Salem, yet with permission to inform Arnold by Chap. XVIII.} 1780. Sept. 25. letter of his arrest. His letter was received on the twenty-fifth, too late for an order to be given for his release, and only in time for Arnold himself to escape down the river to the Vulture. Washington, who had turned aside to examine the condition of the works at West Point, arrived a few hours after his flight. The first care of the commander-in-chief was for the safety of the post. The extent of the danger appeared from a letter of the twenty-fourth, in which Andre avowed himself to be the adjutant-general of the British army, and offered ex
ng them away from the city, where their mere presence kept the love of independence alive. To seek Chap. XVIII.} 1780. Sept. 25. security by a threat of retaliation on innocent men was an unworthy act which received no support from Sir Henry Clinton. Andre was without loss of time conducted to the headquarters of the army at Tappan. His offence was so clear that it would have justified the promptest action; but, to prevent all possibility of complaint from any quarter, he was, on the twenty-ninth, brought before a numerous and very able board of 29. officers. On his own confession and without the examination of a witness, the board, on which sat Greene, second only to Washington in the service; St. Clair, afterwards president of congress; Lafayette, of the French army; Steuben, from the staff of Frederic the Second; Parsons, Clinton, Glover, Knox, Huntingdon, and others, all well known for their uprightness,—made their unanimous report that Major Andre, adjutant-general of the Br
dre was penetrated with the liberality of the members of the court, who showed him every mark of indulgence, and required him to answer no interrogatory which could even embarrass his feelings. Hamilton, i. 178. He acknowledged their generosity in the strongest terms of manly gratitude, and afterwards remarked to one who visited him, that if there were any remains in his mind of prejudice against the Americans, his present experience must obliterate them. Hamilton, i. 178. On the thirtieth the sentence was approved by Washington, and ordered to be carried into effect the next day. Clinton had already in a note to Chap. XVIII.} 1780 Sept. 30. Washington asked Andreas release, as one who had been protected by a flag of truce and passports granted for his return. Andre had himself, in his examination before the board of officers, repelled the excuse which Clinton made for him; and indeed to have used a flag of truce for his purposes would have aggravated his offence. Washin
January 8th (search for this): chapter 19
of execution, he was just the officer whom a wise government would employ, and whom by luck the British admiralty of that day, tired of the Keppels and the Palisers, the Chap. XVIII.} 1780. mutinous and the incompetent, put in command of the expedition that was to relieve Gibraltar and rule the seas of the West Indies. One of the king's younger sons served on board his fleet as midshipman. He took his squadron to sea on the twenty-ninth of December, 1779. On the eighth of January, 1780, Jan. 8. he captured seven vessels of war and fifteen sail of merchantmen. On the sixteenth, he encountered off 16. Cape St. Vincent, the Spanish squadron of Languara, very inferior to his own, and easily took or destroyed a great part of it. Having victualled the garrison of Gibraltar, and relieved Minorca, on the thirteenth Feb. 13. of February he set sail for the West Indies. At St. Lucie he received letters from his wife, saying: Everybody is beyond measure delighted as well as astonished at
unger sons served on board his fleet as midshipman. He took his squadron to sea on the twenty-ninth of December, 1779. On the eighth of January, 1780, Jan. 8. he captured seven vessels of war and fifteen sail of merchantmen. On the sixteenth, he encountered off 16. Cape St. Vincent, the Spanish squadron of Languara, very inferior to his own, and easily took or destroyed a great part of it. Having victualled the garrison of Gibraltar, and relieved Minorca, on the thirteenth Feb. 13. of February he set sail for the West Indies. At St. Lucie he received letters from his wife, saying: Everybody is beyond measure delighted as well as astonished at your success; from his daughter: Everybody almost adores you, and every mouth is full of your praise; come back when you have done some more things in that part of the world you are in now. The thanks of both houses of parliament reached April and May. him at Barbadoes. In April and May, Rodney had twice or thrice encounters with the F
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