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Georgia (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
gned by eight states. On the tenth, congress issued a circular to the other five, 10. urging them to conclude the glorious compact which was to unite the strength, wealth, and councils of the whole. North Carolina acceded on the twenty-first; Georgia, on the twenty-fourth. New 21. Jersey demanded for the United States the regula- 24. tion of trade and the ownership of the ungranted north-western domain: but, after unassisted efforts for a more efficient union, the state, on the twentyfifta thousand men to re-enforce Pensacola, and three thousand to take Savannah. Two thousand more were destined as a re-enforcement to St. Augustine. Thus strengthened, General Prevost would be able to march in triumph from East Florida across lower Georgia. The new policy was inaugurated by dissensions between the minister for America in England and the highest British officials in America, and was fol- Chap. V.} 1778. lowed by never-ending complaints. Lord Carlisle and his associate comm
United States (United States) (search for this): chapter 6
f C. J. Fox, i. 168. English opinion had by this time resigned itself to the belief that the United States could not be reduced; but as a massive fountain, when its waters are first let loose, rises cceded on the twenty-first; Georgia, on the twenty-fourth. New 21. Jersey demanded for the United States the regula- 24. tion of trade and the ownership of the ungranted north-western domain: but, the French plenipotentiary, listened to his assurances of the affection of his king for the United States and for each one of them, and acknowledged the hand of a gracious Providence in raising themAmerican seamen; but d'estaing preserved unruffled politeness, and really wished well to the United States. Notwithstanding the failure of the first expedition from France, every measure adopted by the British government or its army to reduce the United States served only to promote its independence. In 1775 Chap. V.} 1778. Sept. they sought to annihilate the rebellion by attacking it at i
Rhode Island (Rhode Island, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
a, the British held no post except the island of Rhode Island and New York city with a small circle around its war, recommended the evacuation of New York and Rhode Island and the employment of the troops against the Free temporary superiority at sea in the capture of Rhode Island and its garrison of six thousand men. He had in advance summoned Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island to send quotas of their militia for the expedition. The council of war of Rhode Island, exceeding his requirement, called out one half of the effective forceared one brigade from Massachusetts and one from Rhode Island, of one thousand each, and they were followed byng Sullivan, who was placed over the district of Rhode Island, to throw the American troops into two divisionsces to one in favor of capturing the garrison on Rhode Island, and thus ending British pretensions to sovereigcould not keep at sea. The same storm flooded Rhode Island with rain, damaged the ammunition of the America
Savannah (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
utes of South Carolina, i. 150; IV. 452. The planters of South Carolina still partook of their usual pastimes and cares; while the British ministry, resigning the hope of reducing the north, indulged the expectation of conquering all the states to the south of the Susquehanna. Germain to Clinton, 8 March, 1778. For this end the British commander-in-chief at New York was ordered to despatch before October, if possible, a thousand men to re-enforce Pensacola, and three thousand to take Savannah. Two thousand more were destined as a re-enforcement to St. Augustine. Thus strengthened, General Prevost would be able to march in triumph from East Florida across lower Georgia. The new policy was inaugurated by dissensions between the minister for America in England and the highest British officials in America, and was fol- Chap. V.} 1778. lowed by never-ending complaints. Lord Carlisle and his associate commissioners deprecated the seeming purpose of enfeebling the establishment
Sandy Hook, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
to call upon the six states north of the Delaware for aids of militia, while its financial measure was a popular loan to be raised throughout the country by volunteer collectors. D'Estaing followed his enemy to the north, and anchored within Sandy Hook, where he intercepted unsuspecting British ships bound for New York. The fleet of Lord Howe was imperfectly manned, but his fame attracted from merchant vessels and transports a full complement of volunteers. The French fleet would neverthele and even soldiers perished. The British troops, being quartered in the town, suffered less; and, on the return of fair weather, Pigot, but for his inertness, might have fallen upon a defenceless enemy. The squadron of Lord Howe steered for Sandy Hook. D'Estaing, three of whose ships had severally encountered three English ships, appeared on the twentieth within sight of Newport; but only to an- 20. nounce that, from the shattered condition of his fleet, and from want of water and provisio
North Carolina (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
July 2. and the remainder of the war was like the last rebounds of a cannon-ball before it comes to rest. On the second of July, the president and several members of congress met once more in Philadelphia. On the ninth, the articles of confederation, engrossed 9. on parchment, were signed by eight states. On the tenth, congress issued a circular to the other five, 10. urging them to conclude the glorious compact which was to unite the strength, wealth, and councils of the whole. North Carolina acceded on the twenty-first; Georgia, on the twenty-fourth. New 21. Jersey demanded for the United States the regula- 24. tion of trade and the ownership of the ungranted north-western domain: but, after unassisted efforts for a more efficient union, the state, on the twentyfifth of the following November, accepted the confederacy without amendment; and on the fifth of May, 1779, the delegates of Delaware did the same. Maryland, which was on all sides precisely limited by its charter
Newfoundland (Canada) (search for this): chapter 6
ips bound for New York. The fleet of Lord Howe was imperfectly manned, but his fame attracted from merchant vessels and transports a full complement of volunteers. The French fleet would nevertheless have gone up the bay and offered battle, could pilots have been found to take its largest ships through the channel. Since New York could not be reached, d'estaing, ignorant of — the secret policy of France and Spain, Chap. V.} 1778. indulged the dream of capturing the British towns in Newfoundland and annexing that island to the American republic as a fourteenth state with representation in congress. Extract of a letter of the Count d'estaing to Gerard de Rayneval, in Gerard de Rayneval to the Count de Vergennes, 15 July, 1778. Washington proposed to employ the temporary superiority at sea in the capture of Rhode Island and its garrison of six thousand men. He had in advance summoned Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island to send quotas of their militia for the expedition.
Ogdensburg (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
yet been signed, when Vergennes wrote that it was almost physically impossible for the English to wrest independence from them; that all efforts, however great, would be powerless to recall a people so thoroughly determined to refuse submission. On the side of the sea, from Nova Scotia to Florida, the British held no post except the island of Rhode Island and New York city with a small circle around its bay. No hostile foot rested on the mainland of New England. The British were still at Ogdensburg, Niagara, and Detroit; but the Americans held the country from below the Highlands to the water-shed of Ontario. Over the Mississippi and its eastern tributary streams the British flag waved no more. The Americans had gained vigor in the conflict: the love and the exercise of individual liberty, though they hindered the efficiency of government, made them unconquerable. The British soldier had nothing before him but to be transferred from one of the many provinces of Britain to anothe
New Jersey (New Jersey, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
scenes, Pennsylvania was left in the undisputed possession of her soil. After the retreat of the British, her government, Chap. V.} 1778. as well as that of New Jersey, used the right of bringing to trial those of their citizens who had been false to their allegiance; but Livingston, the governor of New Jersey, pardoned every New Jersey, pardoned every one of seventeen who were found guilty. At Philadelphia, against his intercession, two men, one of whom had conducted a British party to a midnight carnage, were convicted, and suffered on the gallows. Regret prevailed that these also had not been forgiven. Before the co-operation of the arms of France the Americans had substr Clinton could hold no part of the country, and only ravage and destroy by sudden expeditions. Towards the end of Sept. September Cornwallis led a foray into New Jersey; and Major-General Grey with a party of infantry, surprising Baylor's light horse, used the bayonet mercilessly against men that sued for quarter. A band led b
Maryland (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
ite the strength, wealth, and councils of the whole. North Carolina acceded on the twenty-first; Georgia, on the twenty-fourth. New 21. Jersey demanded for the United States the regula- 24. tion of trade and the ownership of the ungranted north-western domain: but, after unassisted efforts for a more efficient union, the state, on the twentyfifth of the following November, accepted the confederacy without amendment; and on the fifth of May, 1779, the delegates of Delaware did the same. Maryland, which was on all sides precisely limited by its charter,—while Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Virginia, and at least one of the Carolinas, might claim by royal grant an almost boundless extension to the north and west,—alone arrested the consummation of the confederation by demanding that the public lands north-west of the Ohio should first be recognised as the common property of all the states, and held as a common resource to discharge the debts contracted by congress for the Ch
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