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Slaves were most numerous in Massachusetts about 1745; in 1763 the ratio of whites to blacks, the latter including many free negroes, was 45: 1. When the Massachusetts Body of Liberties was drawn up in 1641, the question of slavery was treated as follows: Art. 91. There shall never be any bond-slavery, villanage, or captivity amongst us, unless it be lawful captives taken in just wars, and such strangers as willingly sell themselves, or are sold to us. Commenting on this article, Palfrey, in his History of New England, says: Born of slave mother is not mentioned as cause of slavery; and in fact no person was ever born into legal slavery in Massachusetts. In the Constitution of Massachusetts, adopted in 1780, it is declared that all men are born free and equal. This was the doom of slavery; and the interpretation of this clause in the case of Commonwealth v. Jennison settled finally the freedom of the negro in this State. In proportion to its size Medford seems to ha
Thomas Brooks (search for this): chapter 11
hat the duty on them be abated, but no further action than to lay it on the table was taken. He probably had at least fifteen at a time, and the slave-quarters, so-called, have become an object of considerable historical interest. The entire number of persons holding slaves in the last half of the 18th century probably did not exceed thirty, the town records giving, indirectly, the names of twenty. Partial list of slaveholders: Capt. Caleb Brooks, Ebenezer Brooks, Samuel Brooks, Capt. Thomas Brooks,—Bishop,—Brown, Mary Bradshaw, Andrew Hall, Jonathan Hall, Jr., Stephen Hall, Benj. Hall, Hugh Floyd, Jacob Polly, Zachariah Pool, Isaac Royall, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, Stephen Willis, Deacon Benj. Willis, Francis Whitmore. Not that our ancestors believed it wrong; the names of Rev. Mr. Turrell and Deacon Benj. Willis would refute that. But economically it was unprofitable, and its ultimate extinction was doubtless the expectation of all who gave the subject any thought.
f these the most numerous are the deaths; the fewest are the marriages. As the master's name is given in many cases, these records also throw light on the question of slave-holders in Medford. About 40 deaths are recorded between 1745 and 1780. It is rather curious that three of Colonel Royall's slaves died within a year, at the outbreak of the Revolution. Perhaps they were heartbroken at his departure. A few entries are given here by way of illustration: Peter, Son of Worcester & Flora, Negroes of Rev. Mr. Turell and Stephen Hall, Esq., Dyed Jan. 9, 1762. Plato, a Negro Servant of Hon. Isaac Royall Esq., drowned June 8, 1768. London, A Negro Man of the Widow Mary Bradshaw's Died Oct. 15, 1760. Caesar, Negro Servant of Ebenezar Brooks of Medford and Zipporah negro Servant of Nathl Brown of Charlestown, married June 23, 1757. As would be inferred, the number of slave owners was not large, and they were the leading men of the town: the Halls, Brookses and Willise
As would be inferred, the number of slave owners was not large, and they were the leading men of the town: the Halls, Brookses and Willises, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, and, above all, Col. Isaac Royall. This first Royall brought with him from Antigua a number of slaves and in 1737 petitioned that the duty on them be abatehop,—Brown, Mary Bradshaw, Andrew Hall, Jonathan Hall, Jr., Stephen Hall, Benj. Hall, Hugh Floyd, Jacob Polly, Zachariah Pool, Isaac Royall, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, Stephen Willis, Deacon Benj. Willis, Francis Whitmore. Not that our ancestors believed it wrong; the names of Rev. Mr. Turrell and Deacon Benj. Willis wouldRev. Mr. Turrell and Deacon Benj. Willis would refute that. But economically it was unprofitable, and its ultimate extinction was doubtless the expectation of all who gave the subject any thought. I have referred to Deacon Benj. Willis as a slaveholder. The following extract from his will may show the attitude of many masters towards those whom they held in service:
Hugh Floyd (search for this): chapter 11
had at least fifteen at a time, and the slave-quarters, so-called, have become an object of considerable historical interest. The entire number of persons holding slaves in the last half of the 18th century probably did not exceed thirty, the town records giving, indirectly, the names of twenty. Partial list of slaveholders: Capt. Caleb Brooks, Ebenezer Brooks, Samuel Brooks, Capt. Thomas Brooks,—Bishop,—Brown, Mary Bradshaw, Andrew Hall, Jonathan Hall, Jr., Stephen Hall, Benj. Hall, Hugh Floyd, Jacob Polly, Zachariah Pool, Isaac Royall, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, Stephen Willis, Deacon Benj. Willis, Francis Whitmore. Not that our ancestors believed it wrong; the names of Rev. Mr. Turrell and Deacon Benj. Willis would refute that. But economically it was unprofitable, and its ultimate extinction was doubtless the expectation of all who gave the subject any thought. I have referred to Deacon Benj. Willis as a slaveholder. The following extract from his will may show t
master's name is given in many cases, these records also throw light on the question of slave-holders in Medford. About 40 deaths are recorded between 1745 and 1780. It is rather curious that three of Colonel Royall's slaves died within a year, at the outbreak of the Revolution. Perhaps they were heartbroken at his departure. A few entries are given here by way of illustration: Peter, Son of Worcester & Flora, Negroes of Rev. Mr. Turell and Stephen Hall, Esq., Dyed Jan. 9, 1762. Plato, a Negro Servant of Hon. Isaac Royall Esq., drowned June 8, 1768. London, A Negro Man of the Widow Mary Bradshaw's Died Oct. 15, 1760. Caesar, Negro Servant of Ebenezar Brooks of Medford and Zipporah negro Servant of Nathl Brown of Charlestown, married June 23, 1757. As would be inferred, the number of slave owners was not large, and they were the leading men of the town: the Halls, Brookses and Willises, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, and, above all, Col. Isaac Royall. This f
Samuel Brooks (search for this): chapter 11
1737 petitioned that the duty on them be abated, but no further action than to lay it on the table was taken. He probably had at least fifteen at a time, and the slave-quarters, so-called, have become an object of considerable historical interest. The entire number of persons holding slaves in the last half of the 18th century probably did not exceed thirty, the town records giving, indirectly, the names of twenty. Partial list of slaveholders: Capt. Caleb Brooks, Ebenezer Brooks, Samuel Brooks, Capt. Thomas Brooks,—Bishop,—Brown, Mary Bradshaw, Andrew Hall, Jonathan Hall, Jr., Stephen Hall, Benj. Hall, Hugh Floyd, Jacob Polly, Zachariah Pool, Isaac Royall, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, Stephen Willis, Deacon Benj. Willis, Francis Whitmore. Not that our ancestors believed it wrong; the names of Rev. Mr. Turrell and Deacon Benj. Willis would refute that. But economically it was unprofitable, and its ultimate extinction was doubtless the expectation of all who gave the subj
ween 1745 and 1780. It is rather curious that three of Colonel Royall's slaves died within a year, at the outbreak of the Revolution. Perhaps they were heartbroken at his departure. A few entries are given here by way of illustration: Peter, Son of Worcester & Flora, Negroes of Rev. Mr. Turell and Stephen Hall, Esq., Dyed Jan. 9, 1762. Plato, a Negro Servant of Hon. Isaac Royall Esq., drowned June 8, 1768. London, A Negro Man of the Widow Mary Bradshaw's Died Oct. 15, 1760. Caesar, Negro Servant of Ebenezar Brooks of Medford and Zipporah negro Servant of Nathl Brown of Charlestown, married June 23, 1757. As would be inferred, the number of slave owners was not large, and they were the leading men of the town: the Halls, Brookses and Willises, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, and, above all, Col. Isaac Royall. This first Royall brought with him from Antigua a number of slaves and in 1737 petitioned that the duty on them be abated, but no further action than to l
Stephen Willis (search for this): chapter 11
considerable historical interest. The entire number of persons holding slaves in the last half of the 18th century probably did not exceed thirty, the town records giving, indirectly, the names of twenty. Partial list of slaveholders: Capt. Caleb Brooks, Ebenezer Brooks, Samuel Brooks, Capt. Thomas Brooks,—Bishop,—Brown, Mary Bradshaw, Andrew Hall, Jonathan Hall, Jr., Stephen Hall, Benj. Hall, Hugh Floyd, Jacob Polly, Zachariah Pool, Isaac Royall, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, Stephen Willis, Deacon Benj. Willis, Francis Whitmore. Not that our ancestors believed it wrong; the names of Rev. Mr. Turrell and Deacon Benj. Willis would refute that. But economically it was unprofitable, and its ultimate extinction was doubtless the expectation of all who gave the subject any thought. I have referred to Deacon Benj. Willis as a slaveholder. The following extract from his will may show the attitude of many masters towards those whom they held in service: I Benj. Willis . .
Zachariah Pool (search for this): chapter 11
, the names of twenty. Partial list of slaveholders: Capt. Caleb Brooks, Ebenezer Brooks, Samuel Brooks, Capt. Thomas Brooks,—Bishop,—Brown, Mary Bradshaw, Andrew Hall, Jonathan Hall, Jr., Stephen Hall, Benj. Hall, Hugh Floyd, Jacob Polly, Zachariah Pool, Isaac Royall, Dr. Simon Tufts, Rev. Mr. Turrell, Stephen Willis, Deacon Benj. Willis, Francis Whitmore. Not that our ancestors believed it wrong; the names of Rev. Mr. Turrell and Deacon Benj. Willis would refute that. But economically it wis credits himself: by pasturing the deceased's negro woman's heifer, £ 4, 10s. by sundry clothes for negro man Prince, £35. Similar kind treatment is mentioned by Miss Wild in her article on Medford in the Revolution in the case of Zachariah Pool, who left money in his will for the care of his slave, Scipio. I have set forth, with little comment, the few brief facts relating to slavery in our town. Perhaps, on the whole, it is a matter of congratulation that the facts are so meagr<
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