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nsists of those elements—.’ of which we say that the state is by nature composed. And also this class of citizens have the greatest security in the states; for they do not themselves covet other men's goods as do the poor, nor do the other classes covet their substance as the poor covet that of the rich; and because they are neither plotted against nor plotting they live free from danger. Because of this it was a good prayer of PhocylidesA gnomic poet of Miletus, born 560 B.C.— In many things the middle have the best; Be mine a middle station. It is clear therefore also that the political community administered by the middle class is the best, and that it is possible for those states to be well governed that are of the kind in which the middle class is numerous, and preferably stronger than both the other two classes, or at all events than one of them, for by throwing in its weight it sways the balance and preve<
ies. For in all these methods they had it in their power to effect their purpose easily, if only they wished, because they already possessed the power of royal rule in the one set of cases and of their honorable office in the other, for example Phidon in ArgosPerhaps circa 750 B.C. and others became tyrants when they possessed royal power already, while the Ionian tyrantse.g. Thrasybulus, tyrant of Miletus, 612 B.C. and PhalarisTyrant of Agrigentum 572 B.C. arose from offices of honor, and Panaetius at Leontini and Cypselus at Corinth and PisistratusSee 1305a 23 n. at Athens and DionysiusSee 1259a 28 n. at Syracuse and others in the same manner from the position of demagogue. Therefore, as we said, royalty is ranged in correspondence with aristocracy, for it goes by merit, either by private virtue or by family or by services or by a combination of these things and ability. For in every instance thi
wn the people; and at Syracuse the people having been the cause of the victory in the war against Athens made a revolution from constitutional government to democracy; and at Chalcis the people with the aid of the notables overthrew the tyrant PhoxusUnknown. and then immediately seized the government; and again at Ambracia similarly the people joined with the adversaries of the tyrant Periander in expelling him and then brought the government round to themselves.580 B.C; cf. 1311a 39 ff. And indeed in general it must not escape notice that the persons who have caused a state to win power, whether private citizens or magistrates or tribes, or in general a section or group of any kind, stir up faction; for either those who envy these men for being honored begin the faction, or these men owing to their superiority are not willing to remain in a position of equality. And constitutions also undergo revolution when what are t
monarchy; while another is that which existed among the ancient Greeks, the type of rulers called aesymnetae. This, to put it simply, is an elective tyranny, and it differs from the monarchy that exists among barbarians not in governing without the guidance of law but only in not being hereditary. Some holders of this type of monarchy ruled for life, others until certain fixed limits of time or until certain undertakings were ended, as for example the people of Mitylene once elected Pittacus to resist the exiles under the leadership of Antimenides and the poet Alcaeus. That they elected PittacusPittacus held the office 587-579 B.C. He was one of the Seven Sages. Antimenides and Alcaeus were brothers. as tyrant is proved by Alcaeus in one of his catches; for he rebukes the people because The base-born Pittacus they did set up As tyrant of the meek and luckless city, And all did greatly praise him.
ul but the other useless.)There are laws of Draco,Author of the first written code at Athens, 621 B.C. (though in Aristot. Ath. Pol. 4, his legislation is hardly mentioned; he appears there as the framer of the constitution). but he legislated for an existing constitution, and there is nothing peculiar in his laws that is worthy of mention, except their severity in imposing heavy punishment. PittacusOf Mitylene in Lesbos, one of the Seven Sages, dictator 589-579 B.C. also was a framer of laws, but not of a constitution; a special law of his is that if men commit any offence when drunk,they are to pay a larger fine than those who offend when sober; because since more men are insolent when drunk than when sober he had regard not to the view that drunken offenders are to be shown more mercy, but to expediency. AndrodamasOtherwise unknown. of Rhegium also became lawgiver to the Chalcidians in the direction of Thrace,Chal<
k them, for they despise them for trusting them and think they will not be found out. And contempt is in a manner the motive of those who attack monarchs thinking that they are able to seize the government; for they make the attempt with a light heart, feeling that they have the power and because of their power despising the danger, as generals commanding the armies attack their monarchs; for instance Cyrus attacked AstyagesThe last king of Media, reigned 594-559 B.C. when he despised both his mode of life and his power, because his power had waned and he himself was living luxuriously, and the Thracian Seuthes attacked AmadocusBoth these Thracian kings became allies of Athens 390 B.C., but the event referred to may be later. when his general. Others again attack monarchs for more than one of these motives, for instance both because they despise them and for the sake of gain, as MithridatesPerhaps Mithr
dHes. WD 405. was right when he wrote First and foremost a house and a wife and an ox for the ploughing— for the ox serves instead of a servant for the poor. The partnership therefore that comes about in the course of nature for everyday purposes is the ‘house,’ the persons whom CharondasA law-giver of Catana in Sicily, 6th century B.C. or earlier. speaks of as ‘meal-tub-fellows’ and the Cretan EpimenidesA poet and prophet invited to Athens 596 B.C. to purify it of plague. as ‘manger-fellows.’The variant reading o(moka/pnous, ‘smoke-sharers,’ seems to mean ‘hearth-fellows.’ On the other hand the primary partnership made up of several households for the satisfaction of not mere daily needs is the village. The village according to the most natural account seems to be a colony fromPerhaps the Greek should be altered to give ‘consists of colonies from.’ a household, fo
A sign of this is that spirit is more roused against associates and friends than against strangers, when it thinks itself slighted. Therefore ArchilochusArchilochus of Paros (one of the earliest lyric poets, fl. 600 B.C., the inventor of the iambic meter, which he used for lampoons), fr. 61 Bergk, 676 Diehl, 67 Edmonds,Elegy and Iambus, 2. 133. for instance, when reproaching his friends, appropriately apostrophizes his spirit: For 'tis thy friends that make thee choke with rage. Moreover it is from this faculty that power to command and love of freedom are in all cases derived; for spirit is a commanding and indomitable element. But it is a mistake to describe the Guardians as cruel towards strangers; it is not right to be cruel towards anybody, and men of great-souled nature are not fierce except towards wrongdoers, and their anger is still fiercer against their companions if they think that these are wronging them, as
but now when rhetoric has developed the able speakers are leaders of the people, but owing to their inexperience in military matters they are not put in control of these, except in so far as something of the kind has taken place to a small extent in some places. And tyrannies also used to occur in former times more than they do now because important offices were entrusted to certain men, as at Miletus a tyrannyPerhaps that of Thrasybulus (Hdt. 1.20), 612 B.C. arose out of the presidency (for the president had control of many important matters). And moreover, because the cities in those times were not large but the common people lived on their farmsbusily engaged in agriculture, the people's champions when they became warlike used to aim at tyranny. And they all used to do this when they had acquired the confidence of the people, and their pledge of confidence was their enmity towards the rich, as at Athens Pisis
electing some one supreme official for the greatest magistracies. For in all these methods they had it in their power to effect their purpose easily, if only they wished, because they already possessed the power of royal rule in the one set of cases and of their honorable office in the other, for example Phidon in ArgosPerhaps circa 750 B.C. and others became tyrants when they possessed royal power already, while the Ionian tyrantse.g. Thrasybulus, tyrant of Miletus, 612 B.C. and PhalarisTyrant of Agrigentum 572 B.C. arose from offices of honor, and Panaetius at Leontini and Cypselus at Corinth and PisistratusSee 1305a 23 n. at Athens and DionysiusSee 1259a 28 n. at Syracuse and others in the same manner from the position of demagogue. Therefore, as we said, royalty is ranged in correspondence with aristocracy, for it goes by merit, either by private virtue or by family or by services or by a combinatio
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