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Chickamauga Station (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
untry the larger portion of the work was required upon Columbus and Pillow; and a proportionate amount was put on No. 10 and New Madrid; so that when the time came to occupy them, they, as well as Fort Pillow, were in a proper state of defense. General Polk's share in this campaign will appear as the events arise. Of his valuable and conspicuous services after the battle of Shiloh, it is not within the scope of this work to give a detailed account. At Perryville, at Murfreesboro, at Chickamauga, in baffling Sherman in February, 1864, and in General J. E. Johnston's retreat from North Georgia, his courage and skill made him one of the main supports of the Confederate cause in the West. Whoever was at the head, it was upon Polk and Hardee, the corps commanders, as upon two massive pillars, that the weight of organization and discipline rested. General Polk was made a lieutenant-general, October 10, 1862, and was killed by a shell aimed at him, June 14, 1864, near Marietta, Georg
Columbia, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
laves, he established a saw and grist mill, a steam flouring-mill, and a bagging-factory, and interested himself in other kindred enterprises. He also projected and raised the funds to build the Columbia Institute, a seminary for girls. Though Columbia was seven miles distant, he preached in the church there, and also weekly to the negroes; attending likewise the General Convention, and performing other ministerial duties. These labors brought on two attacks of illness, in May, 1836, and he was obliged to desist. But he persuaded Bishop Otey to take the church in Columbia, while he still preached to his own servants, and devoted himself to good works. He was, in very truth, a pillar of his Church; and his genial and affectionate temper cast a pleasant light over his happy and hospitable household, and throughout his neighborhood. In 1838 he was made Missionary Bishop of the Southwest, and was consecrated on the 8th of December. Though he had embarrassed himself by a security
Pocahontas, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
s under General Polk's command were chiefly the State troops transferred by Tennessee to the Confederate service — the equivalent of about ten regiments of all arms, with 3,000 muskets, and a brigade of Mississippians under Brigadier-General Charles Clark. Polk had taken command on July 13th, and, two weeks after, sent General Pillow with 6,000 men to New Madrid, on the right bank of the Mississippi. This point was important, because its occupation prevented any movement by the enemy on Pocahontas, by the way of Chalk Bluffs. While it was expected to make the campaign in Tennessee defensive, the intention was to carry on active operations in Missouri by a combined movement of the armies of Price, McCulloch, Hardee, and Pillow, aided by Jeff Thompson's irregular command. It has already been seen that this plan failed through want of cooperation. Both Generals Polk and Pillow felt the pressing necessity for the occupation of Columbus, and on August 28th Pillow wrote to Polk urging
Sewanee (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
as increased by this concentration of effort. A series of providential visitations, not necessary to be recounted here, had crippled Bishop Polk's large estate; but his pecuniary losses neither shook his earnest faith nor abated his hope and zeal in all good works. The chief business of Bishop Polk's life for five or six years before the war, though not to the detriment of his duties as bishop, was in developing the plan and procuring the endowment of the University of the South, at Sewanee, on the Cumberland Mountains, in Tennessee. He secured 5,000 acres of land, and subscriptions for $400,000, and gave the start to an institution which is now doing a very useful work, and has before it a career of most excellent promise, but which he designed making second to none in this country — a place where Southern youth could obtain all those advantages of the higher university education which they were then seeking at the North or abroad. The building up of this institution had no
Shiloh, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
During all of it he and his immediate staff remained near the battery of Captain Bankhead, which from the bluff was answering the fire of the gunboat. We stood close by the battery; and, after a shell had exploded near to it, Captain Bankhead came up to the general and remarked to him that the gunboat was evidently getting its range, and he should not expose his person needlessly. The general very calmly answered, Captain, we must all take our risks. Afterward, the manner of his death at Shiloh impressed the incident permanently on my memory. But, in fact, his conduct on that occasion was not rash, but wise. He doubtless was aware of that defect of new troops (to which General Joseph E. Johnston subsequently alluded in a conversation with Colonel Freemantle), in refusing full confidence, even to a commander-in-chief, unless they had seen him under fire. The rising ground back of the bluff was filled with those soldiers who were not under arms or on duty at the time, and their ad
West Point (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
igh in 1834, aged seventy-six years. Like his father, he was a fine type of that sturdy and tenacious Scotch-Irish stock which knows so well how to subdue the opposing forces of Nature and man, and to maintain its rights against all odds. Leonidas Polk was the fourth son of Colonel William Polk, and was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 10, 1806. He was an ardent, energetic, athletic youth; and, after spending one year at the famous college at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, went to West Point in 1823. Here, as has been previously told, he became the room-mate of Albert Sidney Johnston, who, though one year his senior in the Academy, and several years older, regarded him with an affection that ripened into life-long friendship. He applied himself with zeal to his studies, and stood among the first for more than two years; but some neglect of duty lost him his stand, and he fell into a brief state of indifference and disappointment. Looking into the future from this gloom, he
Edgefield (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
er in the War of the Revolution, and rose to the rank of brigadier-general in the State forces. William Polk, his eldest son, then a lad not seventeen years old, left college in April, 1775, to become a lieutenant in the South Carolina line. He was actively engaged to the end of the war, toward the close as lieutenant-colonel, and was twice desperately wounded, once in the shoulder and again in the mouth. In 1783, he was made Surveyor-General of Middle Tennessee, and removed to where Nashville now stands. He returned, however, to North Carolina, where he held various honorable and important trusts, and died at Raleigh in 1834, aged seventy-six years. Like his father, he was a fine type of that sturdy and tenacious Scotch-Irish stock which knows so well how to subdue the opposing forces of Nature and man, and to maintain its rights against all odds. Leonidas Polk was the fourth son of Colonel William Polk, and was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 10, 1806. He was an a
Island Number Ten (Missouri, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
fenses. Missouri and Arkansas were added to his department, but he was unable to avail himself of these increased powers, as the defense of the Mississippi was his main object, and occupied all his resources. Dr. Polk says : Finding in Island No.10 a most advantageous position, works were begun there. His design now was to make that the advanced point of defense-holding Fort Pillow as a position to fall back upon, in the event he was driven to it. With those two points thoroughly fortif thoroughly fortified. The lines in the rear, covering the batteries commanding the river, were to be so constructed as to permit of their being held by a fraction of his force, the larger portion remaining free to operate in the open field. Island No.10 was to be fortified as a reserve to Columbus; New Madrid to be fortified, so as to prevent the enemy getting possession of the Missouri shore at that point, and thus obstructing river navigation below No. 10; while Fort Pillow was to form the
Washington, Kentucky (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
sources, and afterward had parted so widely, moved thereafter with a common purpose to a common end. Their friendship was founded upon mutual esteem. When General Polk came from Europe, he brought with him a beautiful onyx cameo — the head of Washington — which he gave to General Johnston on his return, saying: I could find nothing so appropriate as a present for you; for I have never known any one whose character so closely resembled Washington's in all respects as your own. A very dear frieWashington's in all respects as your own. A very dear friend confirms this view of General Johnston thus: Did you ever see Jefferson's estimate of the character of Washington? It is better than the best for General Johnston. When General Polk took command in West Tennessee, his department extended from the mouth of the Arkansas River, on both sides of the Mississippi, to the northern limits of Confederate authority, and east as far as the Mobile & Ohio Railroad. For the following account of his services, previous to General Johnston's arrival, I
Fort Pillow (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
ive operations in Missouri by a combined movement of the armies of Price, McCulloch, Hardee, and Pillow, aided by Jeff Thompson's irregular command. It has already been seen that this plan failed thrs Polk and Pillow felt the pressing necessity for the occupation of Columbus, and on August 28th Pillow wrote to Polk urging its immediate seizure. This had been Polk's own view for some time, but ororks were begun there. His design now was to make that the advanced point of defense-holding Fort Pillow as a position to fall back upon, in the event he was driven to it. With those two points thor the Missouri shore at that point, and thus obstructing river navigation below No. 10; while Fort Pillow was to form the last stronghold in the chain. Most of the winter was spent in strengthening was put on No. 10 and New Madrid; so that when the time came to occupy them, they, as well as Fort Pillow, were in a proper state of defense. General Polk's share in this campaign will appear as
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