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nt of interchange among nations and peoples, by which articles most readily produced in one part of the world are exchanged for those most readily produced in another part. The great fertile plains of North America, South America, Australia, and Russia have become the world's producers of grain and provisions, and are increasing their supplies of the textiles and their supplies of the food-stuffs required by all the world in manufacturing or for daily consumption; while the Orient stands ready s and the Orient will land their merchandise at the docks of Chicago and Duluth, and the other great commercial cities of our inland seas; a great railway system will stretch from South America to Bering Straits, thence down the eastern coast of Siberia, through China, Siam, Burmah, across India, Persia, Arabia, past the pyramids of Egypt to the westernmost point of Africa, where only 1,600 miles of ocean will intervene to prevent the complete encircling of the earth with a belt of steel, whose
he interchange of commodities was simultaneous with the development of the steamship and railway, and that the growth of the one was coincident with that of the other. The application of steam to transportation of merchandise by rail began in England in 1825, and in the United States in 1830, the number of miles of railway in the world in 1830 being about 200. In that year, the world's commerce, according to the best estimates obtainable, was $1,981,000,000 as against $1,659,000,000 in 1820y, and gold discoveries were at that moment combining to stimulate commerce, while the fact that the growth of international commerce has been continued in the face of the return to protective duties by most of the commercial nations except Great Britain, adds to the difficulty of determining how far these important occurrences were factors in the growth of international trade of that time. The following table indicates the growth of the commerce of the world during ninety-eight years of t
y, as well as food-stuffs and cotton, the United States exports to that grand division having increased $428,000,000 since 1890. From North America the imports fell $20,000,000, due principally to the falling off of sugar productions in the West Indies, the imports from Cuba alone having decreased from $54,000,000 in 1890 to $27,000,000 in 1900. To North America the exports increased in the mean time over $100,000,000, the growth being largely manufactures and foodstuffs, a considerable pore for constant anxiety as to the life of those travelling and the cargo carried by the vessel; now it is a holiday excursion of five days, in which there is no more thought of danger than on the cycle-path or an elevated railway. News of the West India hurricane in 1818 reached the United States fully thirty days after its occurrence, while Havana is to-day less than forty-eight hours from New York. The first vessel from New York to China occupied fifteen months on its round trip, and a voya
merce. The first telegraph for commercial purposes was constructed in 1844, and so quickly did its influence become apparent that several thousand miles were in existence by 1850, while by 1860 the total had reached nearly 100,000 miles, by 1870 280,000 miles, by 1880 440,000 miles, by 1890 768,000 miles, and by 1900 1,000,000 miles. Submarine cables, by which the international commerce is guided and multiplied, date from 1851, in which year 25 miles were put into operation across the English Channel. By 1860 the total length of successful lines was about 1,500 miles, though one cable laid across the Atlantic, and another through the Red and Arabian seas, meantime, had worked long enough to prove the practicability of the enterprise. By 1870 the submarine cables in operation amounted to about 15,000 miles, by 1880 to about 50,000 miles, by 1890 to 132,000 miles, and by 1898 to 170,000 miles, the number of messages transmitted on them being 6,000,000 a year, while those by the land
stomed to look for manufactures, the imports fell over $35,000,000, while Europe largely increased her consumption of cotton-seed oil, oleomargarine, paraffin, manufactures of iron and steel, copper and agricultural machinery, as well as food-stuffs and cotton, the United States exports to that grand division having increased $428,000,000 since 1890. From North America the imports fell $20,000,000, due principally to the falling off of sugar productions in the West Indies, the imports from Cuba alone having decreased from $54,000,000 in 1890 to $27,000,000 in 1900. To North America the exports increased in the mean time over $100,000,000, the growth being largely manufactures and foodstuffs, a considerable portion of the latter being presumably re-exported thence to Europe. From South America the imports increased in quantity, especially in coffee and rubber, but decreased proportionately in price, so that the total increase in value in the decade was but $1,000,000, while in expo
carrying power come on land and sea, but with it increased speed and safety. A century ago the voyage to Europe occupied over a month, and was a cause for constant anxiety as to the life of those travelling and the cargo carried by the vessel; now it is a holiday excursion of five days, in which there is no more thought of danger than on the cycle-path or an elevated railway. News of the West India hurricane in 1818 reached the United States fully thirty days after its occurrence, while Havana is to-day less than forty-eight hours from New York. The first vessel from New York to China occupied fifteen months on its round trip, and a voyage to the Orient, before the introduction of steam, occupied from eight to twelve months for the round trip, while now it can be accomplished both ways in a little over one month. Not only have recent years brought increased speed and facility in the moving of commerce, but, with that, increased safety, thus reducing the danger of loss of both li
California (California, United States) (search for this): entry commerce-of-the-united-states
rew propeller, the iron and steel vessels, and the thousands of articles from the factory which form an important part of the cargoes which they carry—all these are the inventions of the century, and all have contributed greatly to the producing and transporting power of man, and consequently to the multiplication of the commodities which he produces and exchanges. Finance and financiers have contributed enormously to the growth of the commerce of the century. The gold discoveries in California and Australia, and later in other parts of the world, have greatly increased the volume of the circulating medium and encouraged the creation of a single and well-defined standard of value, so that the merchant may make his sales and purchases with an assurance that payments will be made in a measure of value acceptable to the whole world, and losses and uncertainty of traffic thus avoided. The supply of this precious metal has increased enormously during the century. Chevalier estimated
Hawaii (Hawaii, United States) (search for this): entry commerce-of-the-united-states
e in exports the increase was $6,500,000, chiefly in manufactures. From Asia the importations increased more than $50,000,000, the increase being chiefly in sugar and raw materials required by our manufacturers, such as silk, hemp, jute, and tin; while to Asia the increase in United States exports was nearly $40,000,000, principally in manufactures and raw cotton. From Oceanica the imports showed little increase, though this is due in part to the absence of statistics of importation from Hawaii in the last half of 1900; while to Oceanica there was an increase in United States exports of more than $20,000,000, chiefly in manufactured articles. From Africa the increase in imports was $6,000,000, principally in manufacturers' materials, of which raw cotton forms the most important item, while the exports increased meantime $17,000,000, chiefly in manufactures. The following tables show the imports and exports of the United States by grand divisions in the calendar years 1890 and 190
y contemporaneous with steam, has also performed an important part in increasing the activity and volume of commerce. The merchant who desired to send a cargo across the ocean or to the other side of the globe did so formerly at great risk as to prices, or else after long correspondence and vexatious delays. Now, not only the dealer in the cities, but the very farmer who grows the grain, or the workman who produces the iron and steel, knows this evening what was its price in the markets of London and other parts of the world this morning. The merchant who desires to sell in Europe may contract his goods before shipping, and those who would make purchases in the Orient or the tropics can give their orders to-day, with the confidence that the goods will start to-morrow and reach them at a fixed date in time for the markets at their most favorable season. The growth of the telegraph and ocean cable has, like that of the railway and steamship, being contemporaneous with the growth of c
United States (United States) (search for this): entry commerce-of-the-united-states
has marked the commercial relations of the United States in recent years is still more strikingly s41,000,000. From Asia the imports into the United States increased from $69,000,000 in 1890 to $12300,000 in 1900. From Europe, to which the United States was accustomed to look for manufactures, tte, and tin; while to Asia the increase in United States exports was nearly $40,000,000, principalltables show the imports and exports of the United States by grand divisions in the calendar years 1 by the great manufacturing centres of the United States and Europe, which furnish in exchange thei rail began in England in 1825, and in the United States in 1830, the number of miles of railway ine West India hurricane in 1818 reached the United States fully thirty days after its occurrence, whof the stated value of the exports. The United States has performed well her part in the century79,000,000 to $19,915,000,000, that of the United States has increased from $162,000,000 to over $2[3 more...]
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