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July 16th (search for this): chapter 4
f the importance of this materiel when it is known that it comprised not only the equipment of troops, hospital supplies, forage, and fuel, but even horses, wagons, locomotives, and cars; and, finally, even all the steamers used for the army. The riverfleet, whose operations in 1862 we have described, and which Foote had commanded with so much ability, was equipped by the quartermaster's department; it consisted of 45 vessels and 38 mortar-boats, measuring altogether 19,494 tons. On the 16th of July it was transferred to the Navy Department, but the quartermaster-general still retained control of the nine iron-clad rams, armed under the direction of Colonel Ellet, which had rendered such important services on the Mississippi. At the breaking out of the war the task of organizing transportation by rail was one of the greatest difficulties the military administration had to overcome. On the one hand, it had to employ the railroad lines of the Northern States without interfering wit
August 2nd (search for this): chapter 4
most solid element of the Federal armies, but their number, which at the outset ranged as high as six hundred and forty thousand men, had been greatly reduced by sickness, desertion, and the bullets of the enemy. The regiments that had been raised in response to the call of 1862 were only enlisted for a period of nine or twelve months: their term of service expired in May, 1863. There were two principal calls made in 1862—the first, dated July 2d, for 300,000 three years men, and the second, August 4th, for 300,000 militia for nine months. Under the call of July 2d, 421,465 men were furnished, and under that of August 4th, 87,588 were obtained. It was the latter whose terms of service expired in May, 1863. Besides these, 15,007 men for three months service were, by special authority, furnished in May and June, 1862.—Ed. These two calls for volunteers had nearly exhausted that portion of the population disposed to rally spontaneously under the Federal flag, nor would the seco
August 4th (search for this): chapter 4
n, had been greatly reduced by sickness, desertion, and the bullets of the enemy. The regiments that had been raised in response to the call of 1862 were only enlisted for a period of nine or twelve months: their term of service expired in May, 1863. There were two principal calls made in 1862—the first, dated July 2d, for 300,000 three years men, and the second, August 4th, for 300,000 militia for nine months. Under the call of July 2d, 421,465 men were furnished, and under that of August 4th, 87,588 were obtained. It was the latter whose terms of service expired in May, 1863. Besides these, 15,007 men for three months service were, by special authority, furnished in May and June, 1862.—Ed. These two calls for volunteers had nearly exhausted that portion of the population disposed to rally spontaneously under the Federal flag, nor would the second call have proved successful but for the fact that the duration of service had been shortened. The results of this measure were
September (search for this): chapter 4
s, and some rare instances of severity, enabled the inspectors, with the aid of corps commanders, to remedy the chief abuses caused by ignorance or the inexperience of beginners. Consequently, at the end of the second year many improvements may be noticed. In November, 1862, there were 151 general hospitals, capable of accommodating 58,715 sick and wounded; the total number of the latter, both in the general and field hospitals, was then nearly ninety thousand. The number increased in September, after the Antietam campaign. At the same period in the following year we find 182 hospitals, containing 84,472 beds: these figures, however, do not express all the progress that was made during this time, for a certain number of hospitals, organized the year previous under unfavorable circumstances, were closed and replaced by establishments infinitely superior in every respect. The latter were supplied with large steam-laundries, combining usefulness with economy. Finally, the second
September 22nd (search for this): chapter 4
the legislative power with the abolition policy which he had adopted. Up to this period the acts of Congress had no object in view except the treatment of slaves coming from the States at war with the Union. The Presidential proclamation of September 22d also aimed at this class of slaves exclusively: these various acts and proclamations were simply war-measures justified by the insurrectionary condition of certain States, but utterly inapplicable to the Union collectively. We have mentionn response to the threats of the opposition that, mixing up, like the latter—most unfortunately for the army— civil affairs with military matters, he had deprived McClellan of his command. We have seen that the emancipation announced on the 22d of September was proclaimed on the 1st of January, 1863. The leaders of the Democratic party found themselves, in the mean while, in the situation, painful for sincere patriots, of all oppositions which lay aside their arms in times of war. The disast
November 1st (search for this): chapter 4
rs, No. 105, War Department, A.-G. O., April 28, 1863, and designation changed to Veteran Reserve Corps by General Orders, N:). 111, War Department, A.-G. O., March 18, 1864.—Ed. which, by affording some honorable employment to men who had been wounded or overtaken by sickness in the line of duty, made it possible at the same time to utilize their services, instead of discharging them with a pension, which was an onerous burden for the appropriations to carry. Six months later, on the 1st of November, this corps numbered 491 officers and 17,764 soldiers: more than three-fourths of them were already organized into regiments of two battalions. The first battalion, with six companies, comprised the ablest-bodied men, armed with muskets, who had to do garrison-duty in the towns, the arsenals, the various posts in the interior, and perform the functions of the provostmarshal's police; the second battalion, with four companies, composed of the most infirm, was employed in the hospitals a
en arrested in the month of January in consequence of some articles openly favoring the South, was restored to liberty and the use of his printing-presses at the end of eight days on his promise to be more guarded in the future. In the month of December, after laying on the table all propositions censuring the government, Congress proceeded to discuss, and finally adopted on the 3d of March, 1863, so memorable in legislative history, an indemnity act, or a law endorsing the measures taken by tht out what were the military resources and the organization of the forces at the disposal of the government at Washington after two years of war. In the month of November, 1862, the Federal army numbered 775,336 men armed and equipped, and in December the Secretary of War, in his report to Congress, estimated their number at more than 800,000—332,000 of whom, in conformity with the law of July 17, 1862, were enlisted for three years. These forces were divided into more than one thousand regi
December 8th (search for this): chapter 4
upon the good pleasure of the functionaries in the various States. We have now a few words to say concerning the financial measures adopted during this same session of Congress. We have shown what was the condition of the Federal Treasury when this session was opened in December, 1862. It was necessary to provide for the deficiencies in the appropriations made for the current year, which expired on the 30th of June, 1863, and, as Congress was to adjourn from the 3d of March to the 8th of December, to make the estimates meet the wants of the ensuing year. Up to the 1st of July, 1862, the Treasury had already paid out the sum of $220,175,370, other than for principal of public debt; and the accumulated requisitions beyond resources amounted to $48,354,701. On the other hand, the following was the condition of its paper: The notes in circulation, including the goldnotes, represented the sum of $222,932,111; those which had been received by the government and exchanged for certif
regiment, and in every quarter by each company. Now, in November, 1862, there were 300 brigades, 1000 regiments, and 10,000 companies, which makes 55,600 accounts to verify for this year; in 1863 eacen under treatment, but they show that on the 30th of June, 1863, this number represented 145 per 1000 of the total effective force of the armies, computed as follows: out of 1000 soldiers, 110 sick a1000 soldiers, 110 sick and 25 wounded, 91 of whom were in the general and 54 in the field hospitals. Supposing a total of one million men under arms, it would be sufficient to multiply each of these figures by the thousand sanitary condition of the armies. The mortality from sickness, which in June, 1862, was 4.7 per 1000, fell in June, 1863, to 3.9 per 1000. Before proceeding to the consideration of another subjec1000. Before proceeding to the consideration of another subject, we must mention those private institutions which, under the inspiration of charitable zeal, played an important role during the war: their place in our work is naturally by the side of the official
ay judge from the aggregate cost, which amounted respectively to $54,589,984 and $55,887,510. The year 1862-63 gives us more details in regard to other supplies, such as 373,348,246 pounds oats; 335,812,088 pounds corn; 629,173,124 pounds hay and fodder; 95,829,799 pounds mixed grain; 186,615 pounds of leather, and horseshoes to the number of more than two million. Among the arms and ammunition furnished by the ordnance department we will mention 1373 field-pieces during the first year and 1108 during the second; and also 653 and 188 siegeguns, and finally 1206 and 41 sea-coast guns and mortars, amounting in all to the enormous figure of 4569 cannon and mortars; 7284, then 3465, gun-carriages, caissons, etc.; 987,291, then 991,387, infantry and cavalry accoutrements; 968,840, then 582,736, small-arms for foot-soldiers; 213,991,127 cartridges for the first year, and 166,867,457 for the second; finally, during the latter year, 373,192,870 percussion-caps. As it will be seen, while t
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