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France (France) (search for this): chapter 5
ts name from their remembrance of home, and in France it was usual to esteem them the discoverers ofnfleur; and the fishermen of the north-west of France derived wealth from the regions, which, it waspeans. In July, Verrazzani was once more in France. His own narrative of the voyage is the earlid the knowledge of the country; and he gave to France some claim to an extensive territory, on the p of its fishermen; who, amidst the miseries of France, still resorted to Newfoundland. There existsso humble an interest. But Chabot, admiral of France, Charlevoix, Nouv. Fr. i 8. a man of bravee inhabitants of the north Chap. I.} 1540. of France; and no mines of silver and gold, no veins abo situated between nearly the same parallels as France. Soon after a short peace had terminated the t delay, and left 1604. Mar. 7. the shores of France, not to return till a permanent French settlemel was wrecked. Poutrincourt, who had visited France, and was now returned with supplies, himself r[16 more...]
Denmark (Denmark) (search for this): chapter 5
rs the glory of having discovered the western hemisphere. It is 1000 or 1003 said, that they passed from their own island to Green land, and were driven by adverse winds from Greenland to the shores of Labrador; that the voyage was often repeated; that the coasts of America were extensively explored, and colonies established on the shores of Nova Scotia or Newfoundland. It is even suggested, that these early adventurers anchored near the harbor of Boston, or in the bays of New Jersey; and Danish antiquaries believe that Northmen entered the waters of Rhode Island, inscribed their adventures on the rocks of Taunton River, gave the name of Vinland to the south-east coasts of New England, and explored the inlets of our country as far as Carolina. But the story of the colonization of America by North-men, rests on narratives, mythological in form, and obscure in meaning; ancient, yet not contemporary. The chief document is an interpolation in the history of Chap. I.} Sturleson, whos
Austria (Austria) (search for this): chapter 5
of 1617, says,—Francis I. sent thither James Breton. This person can be no other than James Cartier, a Breton. entered the Chap. I.} 1534. Sept. 5. harbor of St. Malo in security. His native city and France were filled with the tidings of his discoveries. The voyage had been easy and successful. Even at this day, the passage to and fro is not often made more rapidly or more safely. Could a gallant nation, which was then ready to contend for power and honor with the united force of Austria and Spain, hesitate to pursue the career of discovery, so prosperously opened? The court listened 1534. to the urgency of the friends of Cartier; Charlevoix, N. F. i. 9. a new commission was issued; three well-furnished ships were provided by the king; and some of the young nobility of France volunteered to join the new expedition. Solemn preparations were made for departure; religion prepared a splendid pageant, previous to the embarkation; the whole company, repairing to the cathedr
ed untold wealth to the merchants of Europe, new dominions to its princes, and heathen nations to the religion of the cross. As early perhaps as the year 1470, or probably before 1474, Columbus was attracted to Lisbon, as the great centre of maritime adventure. He came to insist with immovable resoluteness that the shortest route to the Indies lay across the Atlantic. By letters from the venerable Toscanelli, the illustrious astronomer of Florence, who had drawn a map of the world with eastern Asia rising over against Europe, he was riveted in his faith, and longed for the opportunity of proving its reality. After more than ten years of vain solicitations in Portugal, he left the banks of the Tagus, to seek the aid of Ferdinand and Isabella, rich in nautical experience, having watched the stars at sea from the Chap. I.} latitude of Iceland to near the equator at Elmina. Though yet longer baffled by the scepticism which knew not how to share his aspirations, he lost nothing of
South America (search for this): chapter 5
stile, and was appointed one of the Council for the New Indies, ever cherishing the hope to discover that hidden secret of nature, the direct passage to Asia. In 1518 he was named Pilot Major of Spain, and no 1518 one could guide a ship to the Indies whom he had not first examined and approved. He attended the congress which in April 1524 assembled at Badajoz 1524. to decide on the respective pretensions of Portugal and Spain to the islands of the Moluccas. He subsequently sailed to South America, under the auspices of Charles V., though not with entire success. On his return to his native land, he advanced its commerce by opposing a mercantile monopoly, and was pensioned and rewarded for his merits as the Great Seaman. It 1549. was he who framed the instructions for the expedition which discovered the passage to Archangel. He 1558. lived to an extreme old age, and so loved his profession to the last, that in the hour of death his wandering thoughts were upon the ocean. The
North America (search for this): chapter 5
tury it was hardly borne in mind that the Venetian and his son had, in two successive years, reached the continent of North America, before Columbus came upon the low coast of Guiana. But England acquired through their energy such a right to North North America, as this indisputable priority could confer. The successors of Henry VII. recognised the claims of Spain and Portugal, only so far as they actually occupied the territories to which they laid pretension; and, at a later day, the English pare both in the library of Harvard College. was 1500 appointed commander of the enterprise. He reached the shores of North America, ranged the coast for a 1501. distance of six or seven hundred miles, and carefully observed the country and its inh, Viages Menores, III. 43, 44. and is, perhaps, the only permanent trace of Portuguese adventure within the limits of North America. The French entered without delay into the competition for the commerce and the soil of America. Within seven yea
de Gama reached Hindostan by way of the Cape of Good Hope; in Chap. I.} 1498. August, Columbus discovered the firm land of South 1498. America, and the river Oronoco, which seemed to him to flow from some large empire, or perhaps even from the terrestrial paradise itself; and in the summer, Cabot, the youngest of them all, made known to the world the coast line of the present United States, as far as the entrance to the Chesapeake. The fame of Columbus was soon embalmed in the poetry of Tasso; De Gama is the hero of the national epic of Portugal; but the elder Cabot was so little celebrated, that even the reality of his voyage has been denied; and Sebastian derived neither benefit nor immediate renown from his expedition. His main object had been the discovery of a north-western passage to Asia, and in this respect his voyage was a failure; while Gama was cried up by all the world for having found the way by the south-east. For the next half century it was hardly borne in mind
Sebastian (search for this): chapter 5
unconditionally and without limit of time. Under this patent, which, at the first direction of 1497. English enterprise towards America, embodied the worst features of monopoly and commercial restriction, John Cabot, taking with him his son Sebastian, embarked in quest of new islands and a passage to Asia by the north-west. After sailing prosperously, as he thought, for seven hundred leagues, on the twenty-fourth day of June, 1497, early in the morning, almost fourteen months before Columbance to the Chesapeake. The fame of Columbus was soon embalmed in the poetry of Tasso; De Gama is the hero of the national epic of Portugal; but the elder Cabot was so little celebrated, that even the reality of his voyage has been denied; and Sebastian derived neither benefit nor immediate renown from his expedition. His main object had been the discovery of a north-western passage to Asia, and in this respect his voyage was a failure; while Gama was cried up by all the world for having foun
Francis De la Roque (search for this): chapter 5
ticipate the establishment of a state upon the fertile banks of a river, which surpassed all the streams of Europe in grandeur, and flowed through a country situated between nearly the same parallels as France. Soon after a short peace had terminated the third desperate struggle between Francis I. and Charles V., attention to America was again awakened; there were not wanting men at court, who deemed it unworthy a gallant nation to abandon the enterprise; and a noble man of Picardy, Francis de la Roque, lord of Roberval, a man of considerable provincial distinction, sought and obtained Charlevoix, N. F. i. 20, 21. The account in Charlevoix needs to be corrected by the documents and original accounts in L'Escarbot and Hakluyt. a commission. It was easy to confer prov- 1540. Jan. 15. inces and plant colonies upon parchment; Roberval could congratulate himself on being the acknowledged lord of the unknown Norimbega, and viceroy, with full regal authority, over the immense territo
La Rochelle (search for this): chapter 5
he lake which bears his name, and perpetuates his memory. The Huguenots had been active in plans of coloniza- 1610. tion. The death of Henry IV. deprived them of their powerful protector. Yet the zeal of De Monts survived, and he quickened the courage of Champlain. After the short supremacy of Charles de Bourbon, the Prince of 1611, 1612. Conde, an avowed protector of the Calvinists, became viceroy of New France; through his intercession, mer- 1615. chants of St. Malo, Rouen, and La Rochelle, obtained a colonial patent from the king; and Champlain, now sure of success, embarked once more for the New World, accompanied by monks of the order of St. Francis. Again he invades the territory of the Iroquois in New York. Wounded, and repulsed, and destitute of guides, he Chap. I.} 1615, 1616. spends the first winter after his return to America in the country of the Hurons; and a knight errant among the forests carries his language, religion, and influence, even to the hamlets of
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