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city. If it should be argued that this plan involved unnecessary marching on the part of Kirby Smith, who was then at Lexington, a supreme commander could have adopted the one which was contemplated by Bragg early in the campaign. On the 1st of August General Bragg wrote from Chattanooga to Richmond: As some ten days or two weeks must elapse before my means of transportation will reach here to such extent as to enable me to take the field with my main force, it has been determined that Gen commander. Cooperation of the most cordial character is a poor substitute. The word cooperation should be stricken from military phraseology. Map of the battlefield of Perryville, Ky. October 8th, 1862. In writing to the Government on August 1st, after he had met General Smith, General Bragg says: We have arranged measures for mutual support Defense of Cage's Ford, on the Cumberland River, near Gallatin, November 21, 1862. from a Lithograph. Colonel Basil W. Duke, with a, detac
to create the impression of a general advance. On July 31st Bragg and Kirby Smith met at Chattanooga, and a joint movement into middle Tennessee was determined upon, Price and Van Dorn being left to confront Grant in northern Mississippi. On August 5th Bragg sent two of his brigades (Cleburne's and Preston Smith's) to General Smith at Knoxville. General C. L. Stevenson, with nearly nine thousand men, was ordered to watch the Federal General G. W. Morgan, who occupied Cumberland Gap. General equest for cooperation, wrote indicating very forcibly that he thought other plans were more important; and, in fact, the only cooperative action during the campaign was Bragg's compliance with Smith's request to transfer to him two brigades on August 5th, and to transfer Withers's division to him on October 7th. In reply to the question as to what one supreme commander could have done, I confidently assert he could have concentrated and attacked and beaten Buell on September 18th south of Mu
rt of Colonel Lay's brigade is mentioned as 550 strong, August 27th.--editors. On the 28th the army was fairly in motion, but up to this time General Bragg,had not positively determined upon his plan of campaign, and much depended upon the course pursued by the Federal army. As early as the 22d General Buell had established his headquarters at Decherd, on the Nashville Railroad, thirty miles north-west of Stevenson, and had all the supplies at Stevenson transferred to that place. On August 6th, during this advance from Stevenson to Decherd, Brig.-Gen. Robert L. McCook (of Thomas's division; brother to Alex. McD. McCook), who, being ill, was riding in an ambulance, was mortally wounded by the enemy's scouts near New Market.--editors. Two parallel mountain ranges, running north-east and south-west, separated him from Chattanooga. A railroad, connecting McMinnville and Tullahoma, ran nearly parallel to the north-west slope of these mountain ranges. Already he had located General
surprise the 31st Ohio regiment, which had been encamped on the south side of the Cumberland. Finding that the Union troops had changed their camp to the north side, the Confederates threw shells from two 12-pounder howitzers until their cannoneers were driven from the pieces by the musketry fire of the Ohioans, under Lieutenant-Colonel Lister, three of whom were wounded. The Confederates made no serious attempt to cross, and soon withdrew.--editors. port and effective cooperation. On August 8th Bragg writes to Smith: I find myself in your department; without explanation this might seem an unjustifiable intrusion. While it is no doubt true that General Smith was at all times willing to yield to the authority of General Bragg, yet the fact that Smith was the commander of an independent department, receiving orders from and reporting directly to the President, made him primarily responsible to the Executive, and this limited the authority of General Bragg. Nevertheless the Kentuck
June 27th, 1862 AD (search for this): chapter 1.1
Bragg's invasion of Kentucky. Joseph Wheeler, Lieutenant-General, C. S. A. In the van. General Bragg succeeded General Beauregard in command of the Confederate troops at Tupelo, Miss., about fifty miles south of Corinth, on June 27th, 1862. The field returns of June 9th, a week after our army reached Tupelo, reported it at 45,080. To prevent misconception, and to avoid frequent repetitions, I will here state that through-out this paper when I mention the figures of field returns of Confederate troops I shall always include all officers, all non-commissioned officers, and all privates who are reported present for duty.--J. W. This return included the Army of Mississippi, reinforced by the troops brought from Arkansas by Generals Price and Van Dorn, together with detachments gathered from various localities. About two thousand cavalry not included in this return also belonged to the army. This was the maximum force General Bragg could expect to concentrate at that po
s in east Tennessee. The returns for June reported his entire force at 11,768 infantry, 1055 cavalry,; Not including Allston's brigade.--editors. and 635 artillery. The occupation of Cumberland Gap, June 18th, by a Federal division, and the approach of Buell's forces toward Chattanooga seriously threatened his department. Map of North Mississippi and West Tennessee. Map of the Corinth and Iuka region. General Bragg recognized the inadequacy of General Smith's force, and on June 27th he transferred the division commanded by Major-General John P. McCown from. Tupelo to Chattanooga. General Kirby Smith, in a letter dated July 14th, 1862, estimated Stevenson's division at 10,000, Heth's and McCown's at 10,000, Morgan's cavalry 1300. Official Records, Vol. XVI., Pt. II., p. 727.--editors. Forrest and John H. Morgan had already been sent into middle Tennessee and Kentucky, and the operations of these enterprising officers materially lessened the pressure upon General S
September 17th, 1862 AD (search for this): chapter 1.1
at Nashville and the assistance of the railroad to aid in his march. With seven hundred cavalry, I hastened to strike and break the railroad at points between Bowling Green and Nashville, and otherwise sought to retard the northern march of the Federal army. By the 12th it was evident to Buell that no attack would be made on Nashville, and he ordered General Thomas to join him with his own division, which had been commanded by General Union Fort at Munfordville, captured by Bragg, September 17, 1862--the Green River bridge on the left. From a photograph taken in 1886. Schoepf. Buell reached Bowling Green with his cavalry and two divisions of infantry on the 14th, and turned his column in the direction of Munfordville. I interposed my cavalry on the Munfordville road, and also on the roads leading to Glasgow, and reported Buell's movements to Bragg. General Chalmers, with Bragg's advance, reached Munfordville at daylight on the 14th and learned that Colonel Scott, with a ca
Albert Sidney Johnston (search for this): chapter 1.1
. deliberately planned concert of action between the commanders. Both Bragg and Kirby Smith were men who had, to an eminent degree, those qualities that make good generals, and, once together with their armies upon the same field, victory would have been certain. Both fully appreciated the fact that, when an adversary is not intrenched, a determined attack is the beginning of victory. By this means Smith had been victorious at Manassas and at Richmond, Ky., and by vigorous attack Albert Sidney Johnston and Bragg had won at every point of battle at Shiloh, on the 6th of April. Later, the Confederate points of attack were Bragg's scene of victory the first day at Murfreesboro‘, and the boldness of his onset gave Bragg his great triumph at Chickamauga. Nothing was therefore wanting in Kentucky but absolute authority in one responsible commander. Cooperation of the most cordial character is a poor substitute. The word cooperation should be stricken from military phraseology. Map
August 27th (search for this): chapter 1.1
The left wing, commanded by General Hardee, consisted of Buckner's and Anderson's divisions of infantry and Wheeler's brigade of cavalry. This entire force, on August 27th, reported 27,816 officers and men for duty. This return reports a total of 431 officers and men in the cavalry. September 10th (O. R., XVI., 893) Colonel Joseph Wheeler reported his command on the march (apparently a part of it) as 700 strong, and (p. 890) part of Colonel Lay's brigade is mentioned as 550 strong, August 27th.--editors. On the 28th the army was fairly in motion, but up to this time General Bragg,had not positively determined upon his plan of campaign, and much depended at McMinnville to strike the Confederate forces as they debouched from the mountains; and the same paper estimated Bragg's army at 60,000, while his returns on August 27th showed but 27,816 officers and men for duty. In his official report, dated November 4th, 1862, General Buell estimated his whole effective force on the 7th a
September 4th (search for this): chapter 1.1
and after all the exertions that could be made to collect the stragglers, only some 800 or 900 could be found. The remainder of the force were killed, captured, or scattered over the country. Elated with success, and reinforced by about four thousand troops just arrived under Heth, the victorious army moved forward to Lexington, and was designated by its commander as The army of Kentucky. During the month of September the greater portion of the army remained in that vicinity. On September 4th Colonel Scott, with a brigade of cavalry, was ordered to push on as near as practicable to Louisville, and to destroy the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Heth, with a division of infantry and a brigade of cavalry, marched north; some of his troops, on September 6th, reached the suburbs of Covington, but his instructions were not to make an attack upon the city. Smith used vigorous efforts to gather and concentrate supplies, arouse the people, and raise and organize troops for the Co
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