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bridges formed by huge fragments of granite, beneath which was heard the roar of the water. These constantly obstructed our path, forcing us to make long detours, frequently obliged to retrace our steps, and frequently falling among the rocks. Maxwell was precipitated towards the face of a precipice, and saved himself from going over by throwing himself flat on the ground. We clambered on, always expecting with every ridge that we crossed to reach the foot of the peaks, and always disappoint place where the mules had been left. We were now better acquainted with the topography of the country; and I directed him to bring back with him, if it were in any way possible, four or five mules, with provisions and blankets. With me were Maxwell and Ayer; and, after we had remained nearly an hour on the rock, it became so unpleasantly cold, though the day was bright, that we set out on our return to the camp, at which we all arrived safely, straggling in one after the other. I continue
possession of New Orleans. More than 20,000 soldiers were set in motion (Sept. 27, 1861) southward (5,000 of them cavalry), under the respective commands of Generals Hunter, Pope, Sigel, McKinstry, and Asboth, accompanied by eighty-six heavy guns. These were moving southward early in October; and on the 11th, when his army was 3enemies, Fremont's career was suddenly checked. False accusers, public and private, caused General Scott to send an order for him to turn over his command to General Hunter, then some distance in the rear. Hunter arrived just as the troops were about to attack Price. He took the command, and countermanded Fremont's orders for bHunter arrived just as the troops were about to attack Price. He took the command, and countermanded Fremont's orders for battle; and nine days afterwards Gen. H. W. Halleck was placed in command of the Department of Missouri. The disappointed and disheartened army were turned back, and marched to St. Louis in sullen sadness. Soon afterwards an elegant sword was presented to Fremont, inscribed, To the Pathfinder, by the men of the West. Ascent
ession was general that lie had 12,000. Although large bodies of Confederate troops in Kentucky and Missouri were gathered for the purpose of seizing Cairo and Bird's Point, Fremont was not molested in his mission, and Prentiss, at the former place, was amply strengthened. Pillow and Thompson and Hardee, who had advanced in that direction, fell back, and became very discreet. Fremont returned to St. Louis on Aug. 4, having accomplished his wishes and spread alarm among the Confederates. Polk, at Memphis, ordered Pillow to evacuate New Madrid, with his men and heavy guns, and hasten to Randolph and Fort Pillow, on the Tennessee shore. When news of the battle at Wilson's Creek, and the death of Lyon, reached St. Louis, the Confederates were jubilant. Fremont immediately proclaimed martial law, and appointed a provost-marshal. Some of the most active Confederates were arrested, and the publication of newspapers charged with disloyalty was suspended. But the condition of public a
after the war. For his scientific researches, Fremont received, in 1850, a gold medal from the King command the Western Department; but, John Charles Fremont. through the intrigues of ambitious polastro and his forces, strong in numbers, when Fremont retired about 30 miles, to a mountain positiohority from Washington to conquer California, Fremont appeared there with 160 mounted riflemen. On Aug. 17, 1846, Stockton and Fremont took possession of the city of Los Angeles; and at that place ection, fell back, and became very discreet. Fremont returned to St. Louis on Aug. 4, having accomst, issued an order for such a modification. Fremont could not, for it would imply that he thoughtmen jealous of him and his political enemies, Fremont's career was suddenly checked. False accusernder, by the men of the West. Ascent of Fremont's Peak. In the Journal of his first expedition (1842), Fremont gives a modest yet thrilling account of the ascent of the highest peak of the [22 more...]
d elected Fremont governor of the province. He then proceeded to join the American naval forces at Monterey, under Commodore Stockton, who had lately arrived, with authority from Washington to conquer California, Fremont appeared there with 160 mounted riflemen. On Aug. 17, 1846, Stockton and Fremont took possession of the city of Los Angeles; and at that place General Kearny, who had just taken possession of New Mexico, joined Stockton and Fremont, Dec. 27, 1846. Kearny would not sanction thStockton and Fremont, Dec. 27, 1846. Kearny would not sanction the election of Fremont as governor of California, and on Feb. 8, 1847, assuming that office himself, he declared the annexation of California to the United States. Fremont refused to obey General Kearny, his superior officer, who sent him to Washing October, 1848, Fremont entered upon his fourth exploration among the far western mountains. See Kearny, Stephen Watts; Stockton, Robert field. Fremont was in Europe when the Civil War broke out, and, leaving on receiving notice of his appointmen
d not, for it would imply that he thought the measure wrong, which he did not. Fremont was censured for his failure to reinforce Colonel Mulligan at Lexington. The public knew very little of his embarrassments at that time. Pressing demands came for reinforcements from General Grant at Paducah. At various points in his department were heard cries for help, and a peremptory order came from General Scott for him to forward 5,000 troops immediately to Washington, D. C., notwithstanding McClellan numbered 75,000 within easy call of the capital. Fremont's force, never exceeding 56,000, was scattered over his department. Chafing under unjust complaints, he proceeded to put into execution his plan of ridding the Mississippi Valley of Confederates. His plan contemplated the capture or dispersion of troops under General Price in Missouri, and the seizure of Little Rock, Ark. By so doing, he expected to turn the position of Pillow and others in the vicinity of New Madrid, cut off the
before, felt the exultation of first explorers. It was about two o'clock when we left the summit; and, when we reached the bottom, the sun had already sunk behind the wall, and the day was drawing to a close. It would have been pleasant to have lingered here and on the summit longer; but we hurried away as rapidly as the ground would permit, for it was an object to regain our party as soon as possible, not knowing what accident the next hour might bring forth. We reached our deposit of provisions at nightfall. Here was not the inn which awaits the tired traveller on his return from Mont Blanc, or the orange groves of South America, with their refreshing juices and soft, fragrant air; but we found our little cache of dried meat and coffee undisturbed. Though the moon was bright, the road was full of precipices, and the fatigue of the day had been great. We therefore abandoned the idea of rejoining our friends, and lay down on the rock, and in spite of the cold slept soundly.
Fremont secured the re-enlistment of many of the home guards. He strongly fortified St. Louis, and prepared to place the important post at Cairo in a position of absolute security. With nearly 4,000 troops on steamers, he proceeded to Cairo with such a display that the impression was general that lie had 12,000. Although large bodies of Confederate troops in Kentucky and Missouri were gathered for the purpose of seizing Cairo and Bird's Point, Fremont was not molested in his mission, and Prentiss, at the former place, was amply strengthened. Pillow and Thompson and Hardee, who had advanced in that direction, fell back, and became very discreet. Fremont returned to St. Louis on Aug. 4, having accomplished his wishes and spread alarm among the Confederates. Polk, at Memphis, ordered Pillow to evacuate New Madrid, with his men and heavy guns, and hasten to Randolph and Fort Pillow, on the Tennessee shore. When news of the battle at Wilson's Creek, and the death of Lyon, reached S
For his scientific researches, Fremont received, in 1850, a gold medal from the King of Prussia, and another from the Royal Geographical Society of London. He had already received from his countrymen the significant title of The Pathfinder. At his own expense he made a fifth exploration, in 1853, and found a new route to the Pacific. In 1856, the newly formed Republican party nominated him for the Presidency of the United States, and he received 114 electoral votes against 174 given for Buchanan. Returning from Europe in May, 1861, and being appointed a major-general in the United States army, he was assigned to command the Western Department; but, John Charles Fremont. through the intrigues of ambitious politicians, was removed from the co mand in the course of six months, while successfully prosecuting a campaign he had planned. He was in command of another department, but resigned in 1862, declining to serve under an officer inferior to him in rank. Radical Republicans nomi
in at least a fit place,—in the leaves of a large book, among the flowers we had collected on our way. The barometer stood at 18.293, the attached thermometer at 44°, giving for the elevation of this summit 13,570 feet above the Gulf of Mexico, which may be called the highest flight of the bee. It is certainly the highest known flight of that insect. From the description given by Mackenzie of the mountains where he crossed them with that of a French officer still farther to the north and Colonel Long's measurements to the south, joined to the opinion of the oldest traders of the country, it is presumed that this is the highest peak of the Rocky Mountains. The day was sunny and bright, but a slight shining mist hung over the lower plains, which interfered with our view of the surrounding country. On one side we overlooked innumerable lakes and streams, the spring of the Colorado of the Gulf of California; and on the other was the Wind River Valley, where were the heads of the Yellows
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