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Java (Indonesia) (search for this): chapter 13
shed in good faith. In it the terra-borealis forms the only trace of the North American continent, and might answer for Newfoundland. Cuba and parts of the South American continent are plotted as islands of the eastern coast of Asia, adjacent to Java major, Java minor, and Zipango, which more immediately fringed the Asiatic coast. Cuba, the Antilia of Columbus, and yet the Queen of the Antilles, lies north and south, parallel with the coveted island of Zipango (Japan), which so persistently eJava minor, and Zipango, which more immediately fringed the Asiatic coast. Cuba, the Antilia of Columbus, and yet the Queen of the Antilles, lies north and south, parallel with the coveted island of Zipango (Japan), which so persistently eluded the search of the man of Genoa, who tried to push his caravel through a continent. Sea-charts were brought to England, 1489, by Bartholomew Columbus, to illustrate his brother's views respecting a western continent. The first tolerably accurate map of England was made by George Lilly, who died 1559. Gerard Mercator published his Atlas in 1556. In this, as in the modern maps on the Mercator projection, the meridians and parallels are straight lines and cut each other at right ang
Peru (Peru) (search for this): chapter 13
of an are of the meridian have been made by the Chaldeans, by Eratosthenes, by Al Maimon, by Pire, and more lately by the French, English, Germans, and others; in Peru, Lapland, British India, and elsewhere. (See armil ; armillary-sphere ; astronomical instruments ; odometer.) We regard Eratosthenes with profound respect as the and were celebrated in the time of Pliny. The mines of Idria, the Palatinate, and of New Almaden in California, are extensive and rich. The ore is also found in Peru, China, Hungary, Sweden, Japan, and Chili. In the furnace the ore is subjected to distillation in retorts which lead to condensing-chambers, or the blocks of oryed for a module or standard at 10° Reaumur or 54° Fah. In deducing the length of the quadrant of the meridian, the are measured by Bouguer and La Condamine in Peru, in 1736, was taken as an element. More recent and extended measurements at different points of the earth's surface indicate that the data upon which the metric d
Chile (Chile) (search for this): chapter 13
h a pan of water, which still farther condenses escaping fumes. Mer′cu-ry-fur′nace. A furnace in which cinnabar is treated for the production of mercury. The localities yielding the sulphide of mercury are not numerous. The Almaden mines of Spain were known to the Greeks 700 B. C., and were celebrated in the time of Pliny. The mines of Idria, the Palatinate, and of New Almaden in California, are extensive and rich. The ore is also found in Peru, China, Hungary, Sweden, Japan, and Chili. In the furnace the ore is subjected to distillation in retorts which lead to condensing-chambers, or the blocks of ore are roasted in a furnace, the whole volatile results of the furnace passing with the metalliferous fumes to a series of condensing-chambers. See condenser. See previous article. The latter is the plan adopted at Idria in Austria, the former in Bavaria and California. Dr. Ure's retort-furnace, erected at Landsberg in Bavaria, resembles the apparatus for the distillati
Sheffield (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 13
ss. Mag-net′ic guard. A respirator with a gauze of magnetic iron to arrest particles of steel dust when dry-grinding cutlery. Invented by Abraham of Sheffield, England. Mag-net′ic Nee′dle. A slender, poised bar or plate of magnetized steel. The forms of magnetic needles are varied, according to fancy. Some have t the metal is melted. It is run into slabs, and the metal obtained is white, hard, compact, and brittle. The puddling-furnace was invented by H. Cort of Sheffield, England, his patent being dated in 1784. See puddling-furnace. One process of converting pig into malleable iron, as practiced in England, is as follows: — at Pall Mall, London, and specimens of ears of wheat, flashy flowers, such as coxcombs, and other beautiful objects, have been exhibited. Branson, of Sheffield, England, has pursued a somewhat analogous method in obtaining castings from ferns, algae, etc. A slab of gutta-percha is softened by boiling water, laid on a smoot
Missouri (Missouri, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
61Diamg.11112009878Hebrew. IridiumIr.99197.121.153,992.0326Diamg.15Tennant1804Lat. Iris (the rainbow). IronFe.2856.087.8442,912.11381/812Mag.164570 – 7204417 LeadPb.103.5206.9111.36617.03141/351Diamg.8101318298 LithiumLi.6.97.020593374.94081619Arfwedson1817Gr. Lithos (a stone). MagnesiumMg.12.224.61.7431,38215Davy1807Magnesia in Asia Minor. ManganeseMn.27.655.78.0133,452.01217Mag.4Gahn1740Magnesia in Asia Minor. MercuryHg.10020013.596— 40..0318Diamg.72The deity and planet. MolybdenumMo.46968.623,632.0722Hjelm1782Gr. Molybdos (lead). NickelNi.29.658.88.822,912.1086Mag.212913Cronstedt1751Ger. Kupfernickel. Osmium.Os.99.6198.821.43,992.0306Mag.10Tennant1804Gr. Osme (odor). Palladium.Pd.53.3106.4711.83,632.05931/1000Mag.85628018Wollaston1803The goddess and asteroid Pallas. PlatinumPt.98.7197.121.53,992.03241/1131Mag.9435603818Sp. dim. of Plata (silver). PotassiumK.39.239.130.865131.1695Davy1807Eng. Potash. RhodiumRo.52.2104.312.14,352.0580Diamg.14Wollaston1804Gr. Rhod
Washington (United States) (search for this): chapter 13
or mark for a tuck, and in a line parallel with, and at any desired distance from, another tuck. Fig. 3073 shows a good form of the appliance. The plate A has an arm surrounding the feed-opening and presser; on the end of the arm is the spur I. An arm B, notched at its forward end, is bent to form a spring, and is bent down by the needlebar to form a crease in the cloth lying on the point I. For varieties of tuck-creasers and markers, see Sewing-machine attachments, G. W. Gregory, Washington, D. C. Mark′ing-gage. (Carpentry.) The markinggage has a stem which carries a scribing point and a head or fence, which is adjustable on the stem and secured in adjustment by a set screw or wedge. As the scribe is drawn along on a board, the fence slides on the edge of the latter, and causes the mark to be parallel with the edge and at the regulated distance. Marking-gage. Mark′ing-ink. An indelible ink for marking clothes. See ink. Mark′ing-ma-chine′. (Co
Mexico (Mexico, Mexico) (search for this): chapter 13
ation. Mag′is-tral. 1. (Metallurgy.) Made from copper pyrites (or raw magistral), which is found in many parts of Mexico. These ores, according to Napier, contain from 7.47 to 13.75 per cent of copper. It is reduced to powder by dry stampin now mined extensively at Idria, in the Schiefergebirge, and is found in Hungary, many parts of Germany, in China, Japan, Mexico, Honduras, Columbia, Peru, and California. The modes of obtaining mercury by the decomposition and distillation of cin(coal)2,504 Linden, Prussia (salt well)2,331 Tresavean, England (copper)2,112 Durham, England (coal)1,773 Valenciana, Mexico (silver)1,686 Crown Point, Comstock lode, Nevada (silver)1,400 Santa Rosa, Mexico (silver)1,200 2. Crude ironstone,Mexico (silver)1,200 2. Crude ironstone, known as raw-mine, green-mine, burnt-mine, etc. 3. (Fortification.) An excavation toward or under the rampart of a fortress to contain an explosive charge, to destroy or effect a breach in an enemy's works. Mines executed by the defenders of a
Nevada (Nevada, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
ing process, its object being to mash and disintegrate the fibers. See meat-cutter ; meat-chopper ; sausage-machine. Mine. 1. A subterraneous passage from which coal, metals, metallic ores, are obtained. Depth of Mines.Feet. Eselchact, Bohemia (silver).3,778 Dunkenfield, England (coal)2,504 Pendleton, England (coal)2,504 Linden, Prussia (salt well)2,331 Tresavean, England (copper)2,112 Durham, England (coal)1,773 Valenciana, Mexico (silver)1,686 Crown Point, Comstock lode, Nevada (silver)1,400 Santa Rosa, Mexico (silver)1,200 2. Crude ironstone, known as raw-mine, green-mine, burnt-mine, etc. 3. (Fortification.) An excavation toward or under the rampart of a fortress to contain an explosive charge, to destroy or effect a breach in an enemy's works. Mines executed by the defenders of a fort, to intercept those of the assailants, are countermines. The place of deposit is the chamber; and the passage leading thereto the gallery. Military mines are kno
Russia (Russia) (search for this): chapter 13
of light strain, to be used during periods when a greater power is needed. The invention of Captain C. Von Schubersky of Russia. See fly-wheel. Maid′en. A machine for beheading. The Scotch guillotine, in use from 1550 to 1680, was copied cocoa-nut), jute; also of rushes, hair, grass, palm-leaves, etc. The India matting is made of a peculiar Oriental grass. Russia matting of bast or linden bark. Also of strips of black-walnut or other ornamental wood, with wires passing through themarian gloves thus made. As a Frenchman, he was surprised; but these fellows had not been battling with winds fresh from Siberia for so long to no purpose. Mixed Fab′rics. Those in which two or more fibers are combined. The varieties are nume in respect of the size of its stones than any other building in the world, except the church of St. Isaac at Petersburg, Russia. The largest existing monolithic temple in Egypt is that of Tel-el-mai, on the Delta. It is 21 feet 9 inches high, 13
Heliopolis (Lebanon) (search for this): chapter 13
ones alternately laid flat and set up endwise; the latter were usually much longer than the others. This is termed long and short work (J). Masonry. Stone at Baalbek. In the Norman period, herring-bone work (K) was frequently employed in rubble walls. The stones used during the Middle Ages were seldom larger than could f say five feet. The largest stones ever placed in a wall by the hand of man are probably those in the foundations of the west and north sides of the temple of Baalbek. Thompson says: — The first tier above ground consists of stones of different lengths, but all above 12 feet thick and the same in width. Then come three stoody and back 6 1/2 meters, or about 72, 21, and 21 English feet, which, at 13 cubic feet per ton, yields nearly 2,500 tons. See also masonry, where the stones of Baalbek are noticed. Monte-Jus. Monte-jus. (Sugar.) A force-pump by which the juice from the canemill is raised to the clarifiers on the story above. It cons
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