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Peru, Ind. (Indiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
the expense of one constructed in 1715 by Rowley, after a pattern devised by the clockmaker George Graham. See planetarium; Tellurian. The heliocentric theory was held by the ancient Egyptians, and taught by them to Pythagoras. The theory did not flourish in Greece. Plato mentions it. A few scholars, like Nicolas (probably of Laodicea, fourth century A. D.), entertained it during the vast intervening period, and it was eventually revived by Copernicus. When the Spaniards conquered Peru, they found the natives in possession of the true theory, considering the sun the center of our system. The Chinese annals state that Tsi-ang-nung, in the reign of Shu-en-ti (126 – 145 A. D.), made an orrery to represent the apparent motion of the heavenly bodies round the earth, the instrument being kept in motion by the dropping of water from a clepsydra. There is a reference also to a similar instrument in the third century. A planetarium is described in a letter from Angelo Politia
Norway (Norway) (search for this): chapter 15
9 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMile2,025 RussiaVerst1,166.7 RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,522 SwedenMile11,660 SwitzerlandMeile8,548 TurkeyBerri1,828 TuscanyMiglio1,809 VeniceMiglio1,900 O-don′ta-gra. A form of dental forceps. O-don′to-graph.
Thames (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 15
cted directly to the crank. See also oscillating-piston steam-engine. Fig. 3432 is a transverse view of a low-draft river steamboat with a pair of oscillating engines and feath- ering paddle-wheels. Fig. 3433 is a side view, showing one cylinder inclined, and the upper portion of the wheel with its floats in their changeable positions. The engines are coupled by an intermediate shaft having a crank which operates one or more airpumps. Oscillating engine on low-draft River steamer (Thames). a a are the steam-cylinders; b b, the piston-rods, connected immediately with the cranks c c; d, a crank in the intermediate shaft, working the pistonbucket of the air-pump e; f f are slide-valves regulating the admission of steam to the cylinders; g g, double eccentries on the intermediate shaft, operating the valves f f, enabling a link motion to be employed. h is a handle by which the engines may be stopped, started, or reversed. i i are steam-pipes leading to the trunnions k
Department de Ville de Paris (France) (search for this): chapter 15
gustus and Caligula. Other obelisks are found at Constantinople, Paris, Arles, Florence, etc. The Egyptian obelisks are usually of granhieroglyphics, is supposed to be about 1600 B. C. The obelisk in Paris, erected in 1833, was brought from Luxor. It is 76 feet in hight. , see the quarto L'Obelisque de Luxor, Histoire de sa translation á Paris, Paris, 1839. See also Cresy's Cyclopedia, ed. of 1865, pp. 38, 40Paris, 1839. See also Cresy's Cyclopedia, ed. of 1865, pp. 38, 40; also pp. 1013-17. 2. A reference-mark in printing (+); also called a dagger. Ob′ject-find′er. (Optics.) A means of regis. terin instrument of this kind, in 1550, a degree of the meridian between Paris and Amiens, and found it to be 303 toises less than Picard afterwarred of so much importance that, in 1735, the Academy of Sciences of Paris dispatched two commissions, one to Peru, the other to Lapland. Th the passengers facing, and the door at the rear. Established in Paris by a decree of Louis XIV., 1662, and made to hold eight persons. R
Peru (Peru) (search for this): chapter 15
rence. Some previous measurements are mentioned under armil (which see). Hipparchus of Nicaeea in Bithynia, 162 B. C., laid down a map by the determination of the latitude and longitude of places. A degree was measured on the shores of the Red Sea by the Khalif al Maimoun, the son of Haroun al Raschid, about A. D. 820. The exact determination of the length of a degree was considered of so much importance that, in 1735, the Academy of Sciences of Paris dispatched two commissions, one to Peru, the other to Lapland. The latter party accomplished their mission and returned in 16 months; the former party, after contending with great hardships for 10 years, accomplished their mission, as Frenchmen in pursuit of an idea will do, if anybody can. Since the work of the French Academicians, measurements have been taken in India, France, England, Hanover, Lithmania, and Sweden. One curious discovery resulted, as stated by Sir John Herschel: — The earth is not exactly an ellipsoid o
Bruges (Belgium) (search for this): chapter 15
he colors appear to have been in use down to the latter part of the thirteenth or early part of the fourteenth century. The oldest painting in oil-colors at present known was painted in the year 1297, by Thomas de Mutina or de Mutterfdorf, in Bohemia. It is in the Imperial Gallery of Bohemia. Two other paintings are in the same collection, by Nicholas Wurmser of Strasburg, and Thierry of Prague, respectively. These paintings antedate by many years those of Hubert and John Van Eyck of Bruges, who lived during the earlier part of the fifteenth century, and to whom the invention of oil-painting is generally ascribed. Oil-press. A press for extracting oil from the seeds of various plants. Formerly, linseed constituted by much the largest source of supply, but within the past few years cotton-seed is largely used, it as well as linseed yielding a large proportion of oil, beside meal or cake well adapted for feeding cattle or hogs. Cotton-seed (excepting Sea Island) is prefer
Lynn (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
designs was spoiled by the box of whistles. This instrument was nearly 30 feet high, 18 wide, and 8 deep. About 1680, the barrel-organ used by itinerant musicians was introduced. The early builders were fond of employing outre materials in their organs, and of decorating them with precious metals and stones, or with grotesque carvings; animals, birds, and angelic figures moved by mechanism were also introduced, the latter playing on the trumpet or beating big drums. The old organ at Lynn, in Norfolk, had a figure of King David playing on the harp and larger than life, cut from the solid wood; likewise several moving figures, which beat time, etc. We are told that the Emperor Theophilus, 829-41, had two great gilded organs, embellished with precious stones and golden trees, on which a variety of little birds sat and sung, the wind being conveyed to them by concealed tubes. The Duke of Mantua had an organ in which the pipes and other parts were made of alabaster. A pair
Belgium (Belgium) (search for this): chapter 15
e driver with eight kilometers (about five miles) an hour, or two francs, according to the Parisian tariff. Table of Lengths of Foreign Road Measures. Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. ArabiaMile2,146 AustriaMeile (post)8,297 BadenStuden4,860 BelgiumKilometre1,093.63 BelgiumMeile2,132 BengalCoss2,000 BirmahDain4,277 BohemiaLeague (16 to 1°)7,587 BrazilLeague (18 to 1°)6,750 BremenMeile6,865 BrunswickMeile11,816 CalcuttaCoss2,160 CeylonMile1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdeBelgiumMeile2,132 BengalCoss2,000 BirmahDain4,277 BohemiaLeague (16 to 1°)7,587 BrazilLeague (18 to 1°)6,750 BremenMeile6,865 BrunswickMeile11,816 CalcuttaCoss2,160 CeylonMile1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdenPost-meile7,432 EgyptFeddan1.47 EnglandMile1,760 FlandersMijle1,093.63 FlorenceMiglio1,809 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,0
London (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 15
at it was under the occupancy of the Saracens. It has probably retrograded in health, wealth, morals, productiveness, and in scholastic and executive ability. London remarks, that although the olive is grown in Spain in greater perfection than in Italy, owing to some manorial rights or a system of farming the taxes, all the olers or bellows operated by hydraulic or steam power. Fig. 3426 illustrates the blowing-engine employed for the great organ at the Hall of Arts, South Kensington, London, England. It is a vertical beam-engine, having two steam cylinders of 7 inches diameter and 24 inches stroke, and two blowing cylinders of 24 inches diameter andg the supply according to the ever-varying requirements of the organ. Blowing-engine for the organ Royal Albert, Hall of Arts and Sciences, South Kensington, London. A horizontal engine of 13-horse power, driving a crank to which six large bellows are connected, furnishes compressed air to the reservoirs which supply the
Utah (Utah, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
re considered under their respective heads. Fig. 3420 is a view of the Stetefeldt ore-roasting furnace, so much used in the silver districts, and shown under silver mill in its relation and position to the crusher, stamps, and amalgamator. It is of the class known as a shaft-furnace, in which the finely powdered ore is mixed with certain chemical re-agents and dropped into the flame, which passes up the chimney. In the case, for instance, of operating upon the sulphides of silver mined in Utah, the ore which has been broken in the crusher, and reduced to powder by the stamps, is mixed in the latter with a certain percentage of salt, and then conveyed to the top of the furnace, where it is distributed by the feeder a in a shower of fine dust by the sieve b; falling down the shaft c, it is exposed to the full effect of the flames and heat rising from the furnace d, for which the shaft c forms a chimney. A double decomposition takes place in the shaft, the chlorine leaving the sodium
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