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Breslau (Texas, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
is said that half-notes were invented at Venice in the twelfth century, but the earliest authentic example of their introduction was in the Halberstadt organ, built about 1360. The invention of the pedal is claimed for Bernhard, a German organist to the doge of Venice, 1470-80. He probably made some improvement in that appendage, but it appears to have been in use nearly a century previous. The organ of Nuremberg had pipes from 16 to 32 feet long, A. D. 1468. In 1596, the organ of Breslau had most of the now known stops. It would seem that up to the fifteenth century organs were generally constructed by the monks, but about this period organ-builders by profession were to be found both in England and on the Continent. The earliest recorded in England was William Wotton, who, in 1587, agreed to make a pair of organs for Merton College, Oxford, for the sum of pound28. The German and Dutch builders appear to have taken the lead, and we find that, notwithstanding the stre
Harlem River (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
t-station for the firealarm service, for signaling, for meteorological observations, etc. The iron observatory on the roof of the Equitable Life Insurance Company, on Broadway, New York, is 22 feet high above the roof of the building, which is 130 feet above the sidewalk. The probabilities of the weather are indicated by balls 12 feet in diameter, displayed upon two signal-staffs and visible from various points on Long Island Sound, Sandy Hook, and the inland waters of the Hudson and Harlem rivers. In the building is a large map, displaying the territory throughout which the service has its stations, reaching from Mexico to Canada, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. The state of the weather is indicated by dials at each of these stations on the map, from which reports are received every five hours. Ob-stet′ri-cal chair. One capable of affording convenient position for the delivery of the child and access of the midwife. Obsterical forceps. Ob-stet′ri-cal F
Auvergne (France) (search for this): chapter 15
Debonnair built one on the Greek model at Aquisgrana, the modern Aix-la-Chapelle. Several German organs were placed in Italian churches by John VIII., 872-882. About 951, the abbey of Malmesbury and the cathedral of Winchester in England were provided with organs. At this time and for two centuries later, the compass was small, usually from 9 to 11 notes, the brass pipes harsh in tone and the machinery clumsy; the keys being 4 or 5 inches broad, and struck by the fist. Gerbert of Auvergne, in his school at Rheims, had an organ played by steam. He was afterward made Pope by the Emperor Otho III., assuming the name of Sylvester II. He and his patron were poisoned by Italian intriguers about 1002. Gerbert introduced the Arabic numerals into Europe. The organ of Winchester, probably placed there by St. Dunstan, had 26 pairs of bellows, 400 pipes, and required 70 men to work it. The key-board is distinctly described at the close of the eleventh century. At this time a n
Titusville (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
kly along the wire over the surface of the oil; if no flash is produced, the heat is continued and the test applied at every 3° above this until the flashing-point is reached. The operation is then repeated with a fresh sample of oil, fresh water being used in the outer vessel, the source of heat being removed when a temperature approaching that obtained in the first experiment has been reached. A fire-test. See petroleum-tester. Oil-well. The first borings for oil were made at Titusville, Pa., 1859, by Mr. E. L. Drake. Previous to this the petroleum was collected by blankets on the surface of springs and bottled for medicinal use. Nothing was then known of its use for lighting or lubricating. Mr. Drake had great difficulty in obtaining competent drillers, so absurd was deemed the project of searching for a basin of oil beneath the surface. He then gave out that he was boring for a salt-well. He originated the practice of driving a tube to the rock, instead of excavating
Portland (Maine, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
on which they are fastened by cleats and stay-rods. The tanks are made of matched planks bolted together. See oil-tank. Oiling-can. Oiler. Cap for oil-can. Oil-car′ry-ing Ves′--sel. One having builtin tanks in the hold to hold oil in bulk. It has conveniences for loading and discharge, and also for allowing expansion and contraction of the oil without overflow of the liquid or collapse of the tank. Tank-car. Molasses is also carried in bulk from the West Indies to Portland and elsewhere. Oil-carrying ship. Oil-cel′lar. An oil-reservoir in the bottom of a journal-box. Oil-cloth. A tarpaulin. Painted canvas for floor-covering. The latter description is prepared from cloth especially woven for the purpose, frequently of great width, and covered on each side by a peculiar series of processes, with paint. Figures or patterns in oil-colors are afterward printed on one side by means of wooden blocks. See floor-cloth. Floor oil-cloth is man<
Java (Indonesia) (search for this): chapter 15
. It gives the flavor to raw whiskey and is used for making flavoring extracts. Formerly used for burning. Gingilie(See Sesamum.) Ground-nut or earth-nutArachis hypogaeaEurope, etcAffords oil used in cooking, burning, and for making soap. HazelCorylus avellanaEurope, etcNuts afford oil. Sold as nut-oil. Used by painters, perfumers, and medicinally. Hemp-seedCannabis sativaEurope, etcUsed for burning, paints, varnishes, and for soft soaps, etc. Insect wax(See Wax.) Japan wax(See Wax.) Java wax(See Wax.) LinseedLinum usitatissimumEurope, etcBoiled with litharge produces the boiled oil of paints and varnishes. Used in burning, etc. The refuse of the seeds affords the oil-cake for fattening cattle. MaizeZea maysWarm climatesOil extracted from the seeds. MeeBassia longifoliaTropicsObtained from the seeds. Used for burning, etc. Myrica wax(See Candleberry.) Myrtle wax(See Candleberry.) MustardSinapis alba et nigraEurope, etcThe husks and seed afford a fixed oil. Used for bur
1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMile2,025 RussiaVerst1,166.7 RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,522 SwedenMile11,660 SwitzerlandMeile8,548 TurkeyBerri1,828 TuscanyMiglio1,809 VeniceMiglio1,900 O-don′ta-gra. A form of dental forceps. O-don′to-graph. (Gearing.) An instrument for marking or laying off the teeth of gear-wheels; invented by Professo
London, Madison County, Ohio (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
pping of water from a clepsydra. There is a reference also to a similar instrument in the third century. A planetarium is described in a letter from Angelo Politiano to his friend Francesco Casa, as seen by the former at Florence in the fifteenth century. The inventor was one Lorenzo of Florence, and the apparatus was constructed to illustrate the Ptolemaic theory of the heavens. The various parts were moved by trains of cog-wheels. Life of A. Politiano, published by Cadell and Davis, London, about 1800. A planetary clock was made by Finee, 1553, and a planetarium by De Rheita in 1650. Or′se-dew. Leaf metal of bronze. Dutch metal. Or′tho-graph. A drawing representing a structure in elevation, external or internal. The internal orthograph is usually termed a vertical section or sciagraph. The ground plan is the ichnograph. The view of the whole building, the scenograph. Or-tho-scop′ic lens. (Optics.) An arrangement of two achromatic compound lenses
Canada (Canada) (search for this): chapter 15
others, and, acting on their theoretical views, Mr. Joseph Jackson Lister succeeded in effecting one of the greatest improvements in the manufacture of achromatic object-glasses by uniting a plano-convex flint lens with a convex lens by means of Canada balsam. This diminishes by nearly one half the loss of light occasioned by reflection where the surfaces unite, and prevents the dampness or the formation of mold at the junction. Mr. Ross, who subsequently devoted much time to the improvemvisible from various points on Long Island Sound, Sandy Hook, and the inland waters of the Hudson and Harlem rivers. In the building is a large map, displaying the territory throughout which the service has its stations, reaching from Mexico to Canada, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. The state of the weather is indicated by dials at each of these stations on the map, from which reports are received every five hours. Ob-stet′ri-cal chair. One capable of affording convenient p
York (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 15
ng the strenuous opposition of Zuinglius and some of the early reformers, the German churches were, during the sixteenth century, generally provided with organs. During this century, the German builders introduced the register and the stopped pipe. The key-board also was extended to four octaves. England, also, was well provided with artists of this class, and possessed some fine instruments. In 1634, we are informed that the organ in the cathedral of Durham cost pound1,000. Those of York, Litchfield, Hereford, Bristol, and other cathedral towns were also noted. During the civil war, the Puritans, particularly the parliamentary soldiers, destroyed many fine organs, breaking them in pieces and selling the pipes for old metal. Few or none being built during this period, the art became almost forgotten in England, so that Pepys records, under date of July 8, 1660: To White-Hall Chapel, where I got in with ease by going before the Lord Chancellor with Mr. Kipps. Here I heard
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