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as commander-in-chief of the Northern Division of the Army of Mexico. He was strongly reinforced, and the position of the Army of Occupation became critical. Parties of armed Mexicans soon got between Point Isabel and Fort Brown and cut off all intercommunication. A reconnoitring party under Captain Thornton was surprised and captured (April 24) on the Texas side of the Rio Grande, when Lieutenant Mason was killed. Having completed his fort, Taylor hastened to the relief of Point Isabel, May 1, which was menaced by a Mexican force, 1,500 strong, collected in the rear. He reached Point Isabel the same day. This departure of Taylor from the Rio Grande emboldened the Mexicans, who opened fire upon Fort Brown, May 3, from Matamoras, and a large body crossed the river to attack it in the rear. Taylor had left orders that in case of an attack, if peril appeared imminent, signal guns must be fired, and he would hasten to the relief of the fort. On the 6th, when the Mexicans began to
Brown and cut off all intercommunication. A reconnoitring party under Captain Thornton was surprised and captured (April 24) on the Texas side of the Rio Grande, when Lieutenant Mason was killed. Having completed his fort, Taylor hastened to the relief of Point Isabel, May 1, which was menaced by a Mexican force, 1,500 strong, collected in the rear. He reached Point Isabel the same day. This departure of Taylor from the Rio Grande emboldened the Mexicans, who opened fire upon Fort Brown, May 3, from Matamoras, and a large body crossed the river to attack it in the rear. Taylor had left orders that in case of an attack, if peril appeared imminent, signal guns must be fired, and he would hasten to the relief of the fort. On the 6th, when the Mexicans began to plant cannon in the rear and Major Brown was mortally wounded, the signals were given, and Taylor marched for the Rio Grande on the evening of the 7th, with a little more than 2,000 men, having been reinforced by Texan vo
orces, Feb. 4, 1847, on the San Luis road, determined to fight the Mexicans, who were approaching. The opportunity was not long delayed. The Americans fell back to Buena Vista, within 11 miles of Saltillo, and encamped in a narrow defile, and there a severe battle was fought, Feb. 23, resulting in victory for the Americans. Gen. Stephen W. Kearny (q. v.) was placed in command of the Army of the West, with instructions to conquer New Mexico and California. He left Fort Leavenworth in June, 1846, and, after a journey of 900 miles over the great plains and among mountain ranges, he arrived at Santa Fe, Aug. 18, having met with no resistance. Appointing Charles Brent governor, he marched towards California, and was soon met by an express from Commodore Robert F. Stockton (q. v.), and Lieut.-Col. John C. Fremont (q. v.), informing him that the conquest of California had been achieved. Fremont and a party of explorers, sixty in number, joined by American settlers in the vicinity of
ume debts due certain citizens of the United States from Mexico to the amount of $3,500,000. It also fixed boundaries and otherwise adjusted matters in dispute. Unfaithful American citizens plotted schemes for the extinction of the Mexican Republic (see Knights of the Golden circle). While the plots were fast ripening, the two governments successfully negotiated a treaty by which the boundary-line between the United States and Mexico was defined and fixed. The treaty was ratified early in 1854, and it was agreed that the decisions of the commissioners appointed under it to revise the boundary should be final. By that treaty the United States was to be released from all obligations imposed by the treaty of peace with Mexico in 1848, and, as a consideration for this release, and for the territory ceded by Mexico, the United States agreed to pay the latter $10,000,000—$7,000,000 on the ratification of the treaty, and the remainder as soon as the boundary-line should be established.
e fight in the streets of Monterey toria, the capital of Tamaulipas, with the intention of attacking Tampico, on the coast. Meanwhile, General Worth, with 900 men, had taken possession of Saltillo (Nov. 15), the capital of Coahuila. Taylor, ascertaining that Tampico had already surrendered to the Americans (Nov. 14), and that Santa Ana was collecting a large force at San Luis Potosi, returned to Monterey to reinforce Worth, if necessary. Worth was joined at Saltillo by Wool's division (Dec. 20), and Taylor again advanced to Victoria (Dec. 29). Just as he was about to proceed to a vigorous campaign, Taylor received orders from General Scott, at Vera Cruz, to send the latter a large portion of his (Taylor's) best officers and troops, and to act only on the defensive. This was a severe trial for Taylor, but he cheerfully obeyed. He and Wool were left with an aggregate force of only about 5,000 men, of whom only 500 were regulars, to oppose 20,000, then gathering at San Luis Potosi
s not long delayed. The Americans fell back to Buena Vista, within 11 miles of Saltillo, and encamped in a narrow defile, and there a severe battle was fought, Feb. 23, resulting in victory for the Americans. Gen. Stephen W. Kearny (q. v.) was placed in command of the Army of the West, with instructions to conquer New Mexico and California. He left Fort Leavenworth in June, 1846, and, after a journey of 900 miles over the great plains and among mountain ranges, he arrived at Santa Fe, Aug. 18, having met with no resistance. Appointing Charles Brent governor, he marched towards California, and was soon met by an express from Commodore Robert F. Stockton (q. v.), and Lieut.-Col. John C. Fremont (q. v.), informing him that the conquest of California had been achieved. Fremont and a party of explorers, sixty in number, joined by American settlers in the vicinity of San Francisco, had captured a Mexican force at Sonoma pass, June 15, 1846, with the garrison, nine cannon, and 250 mu
the garrison, nine cannon, and 250 muskets. He then defeated another force at Sonoma, and drove the Mexican authorities out of that region of country. On July 5 the Americans in California declared themselves independent, and put Fremont at the head of affairs. On the 7th Commodore Sloat, with a squadron, bombarded and captured Monterey, on the coast; on the 9th Commodore Montgomery took possession of San Francisco. Commodore Stockton and Colonel Fremont took possession of Los Angeles on Aug. 17, and there they were joined by Kearny, who had sent the main body of his troops back to Santa Fe. Fremont went to Monterey, and there assumed the office of governor, and proclaimed, Feb. 8, 1847, the annexation of California to the United States. Meanwhile, Colonel Doniphan, detached by Kearny, with 1,000 Missouri volunteers, marched towards Chihuahua to join General Wool. In two engagements with Mexicans he was victorious, and entered the capital of Chihuahua in triumph, March 2, and
the armistice at an end, and advanced upon the city. Less than 4,000 Americans attacked Santa Ana with 14,000 Mexicans, Sept. 8, at Molino del Rey (the King's Mill), near Chapultepec. The combatants fought desperately and suffered dreadfully. The Mexicans left almost 1,000 dead on the field; the Americans lost 800. The lofty battlemented hill of Chapultepec was doomed. It was the last place to be defended outside of the city. It was attacked by mortar and cannon shells and round-shot, Sept. 12, and the assault continued until the next day, when the American flag waved in triumph over its shattered castle. The Mexicans fled into the city, pursued by the Americans to the very gates. That night Santa Ana and his troops, with the civil officers, fled from the city, and, at 4 A. M. the next day, a deputation from the municipal authorities waited upon Scott, begging him to spare the town and treat for peace. He would make no terms, but entered the city, Sept. 13, a conqueror; and
ls and round-shot, Sept. 12, and the assault continued until the next day, when the American flag waved in triumph over its shattered castle. The Mexicans fled into the city, pursued by the Americans to the very gates. That night Santa Ana and his troops, with the civil officers, fled from the city, and, at 4 A. M. the next day, a deputation from the municipal authorities waited upon Scott, begging him to spare the town and treat for peace. He would make no terms, but entered the city, Sept. 13, a conqueror; and from the grand plaza he proclaimed the conquest of the republic of Mexico. Santa. Ana made some feeble efforts to regain lost power, but failed. He was defeated in two slight battles. Before the close of October he was stripped of every command, and fled for safety to the shores of the Gulf. The president of the Mexican Congress assumed provisional authority, and, on Feb. 2, 1848, that body concluded a treaty of peace with the United States commissioners at Guadalupe-H
June 15th, 1846 AD (search for this): entry mexico-war-with
among mountain ranges, he arrived at Santa Fe, Aug. 18, having met with no resistance. Appointing Charles Brent governor, he marched towards California, and was soon met by an express from Commodore Robert F. Stockton (q. v.), and Lieut.-Col. John C. Fremont (q. v.), informing him that the conquest of California had been achieved. Fremont and a party of explorers, sixty in number, joined by American settlers in the vicinity of San Francisco, had captured a Mexican force at Sonoma pass, June 15, 1846, with the garrison, nine cannon, and 250 muskets. He then defeated another force at Sonoma, and drove the Mexican authorities out of that region of country. On July 5 the Americans in California declared themselves independent, and put Fremont at the head of affairs. On the 7th Commodore Sloat, with a squadron, bombarded and captured Monterey, on the coast; on the 9th Commodore Montgomery took possession of San Francisco. Commodore Stockton and Colonel Fremont took possession of Los A
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