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he met a deputation from Santa Ana to ask for an armistice, preparatory to negotiations for peace. It was granted. Nicholas P. Trist (q. v.), appointed by the United States government to treat for peace, was present. The treacherous Santa Ana had made this only a pretext to gain time to strengthen the defences of the city. When the trick was discovered, Scott declared the armistice at an end, and advanced upon the city. Less than 4,000 Americans attacked Santa Ana with 14,000 Mexicans, Sept. 8, at Molino del Rey (the King's Mill), near Chapultepec. The combatants fought desperately and suffered dreadfully. The Mexicans left almost 1,000 dead on the field; the Americans lost 800. The lofty battlemented hill of Chapultepec was doomed. It was the last place to be defended outside of the city. It was attacked by mortar and cannon shells and round-shot, Sept. 12, and the assault continued until the next day, when the American flag waved in triumph over its shattered castle. The
s on Aug. 17, and there they were joined by Kearny, who had sent the main body of his troops back to Santa Fe. Fremont went to Monterey, and there assumed the office of governor, and proclaimed, Feb. 8, 1847, the annexation of California to the United States. Meanwhile, Colonel Doniphan, detached by Kearny, with 1,000 Missouri volunteers, marched towards Chihuahua to join General Wool. In two engagements with Mexicans he was victorious, and entered the capital of Chihuahua in triumph, March 2, and took possession of the province. After resting six weeks, he joined Wool at Saltillo, and thence returned to New Orleans, having made a perilous march from the Mississippi of about 5,000 miles. The conquest of all northern Mexico was now complete, and General Scott was on his march for the capital. He had landed at Vera Cruz, March 9, with an army of 13,000 men. It had been borne thither by a powerful squadron, commanded by Commodore Conner. He invested the city of Vera Cruz (q.
ital of Tamaulipas, with the intention of attacking Tampico, on the coast. Meanwhile, General Worth, with 900 men, had taken possession of Saltillo (Nov. 15), the capital of Coahuila. Taylor, ascertaining that Tampico had already surrendered to the Americans (Nov. 14), and that Santa Ana was collecting a large force at San Luis Potosi, returned to Monterey to reinforce Worth, if necessary. Worth was joined at Saltillo by Wool's division (Dec. 20), and Taylor again advanced to Victoria (Dec. 29). Just as he was about to proceed to a vigorous campaign, Taylor received orders from General Scott, at Vera Cruz, to send the latter a large portion of his (Taylor's) best officers and troops, and to act only on the defensive. This was a severe trial for Taylor, but he cheerfully obeyed. He and Wool were left with an aggregate force of only about 5,000 men, of whom only 500 were regulars, to oppose 20,000, then gathering at San Luis Potosi, under Santa Ana. Taylor and Wool united their f
ent campaign. On May 23 the Mexican government also declared war. General Taylor crossed the Rio Grande, drove the Mexican troops from Matamoras, took possession of the town (May 18), and remained there until August, when he received reinforcements and orders from his government. Then, with more than 6,000 troops, he moved on Monterey, defended by General Ampudia, with more than 9,000 troops. It was a very strongly built town, at the foot of the great Sierra Madre. A siege commenced Sept. 21 and ended with the capture of the place on the 24th. General Wool had been directed to muster and prepare for service the volunteers gathered at Bexar, in Texas, and by the middle of July 12,000 of them had been mustered into the service. Of these, 9,000 were sent to reinforce Taylor. Wool went up the Rio Grande with about 3,000 troops, crossed the river at Presidio, penetrated Mexico, and, in the last of October, reached Monclova, 70 miles northwest of Monterey. He pushed on to Coahuil
The annexation of Texas caused an immediate rupture between the United States and Mexico, for the latter claimed Texas as a part of her territory, notwithstanding its independence had been acknowledged by the United States, England, France, and other governments. When Congress had adopted the joint resolution for the annexation of State of Texas (q. v.) to the United States, General Almonte, the Mexican minister at Washington, protested against the measure and demanded his passports. On June 4 following the President of Mexico (Herrara) issued a proclamation declaring the right of Mexico to the Texan territory, and his determination to defend it by arms, if necessary. At the same time there existed another cause for serious dispute between the United States and Mexico. The latter had been an unjust and injurious neighbor ever since the establishment of republican government in Mexico in 1824. Impoverished by civil war, it did not hesitate to replenish its treasury by plundering
lly obeyed. He and Wool were left with an aggregate force of only about 5,000 men, of whom only 500 were regulars, to oppose 20,000, then gathering at San Luis Potosi, under Santa Ana. Taylor and Wool united their forces, Feb. 4, 1847, on the San Luis road, determined to fight the Mexicans, who were approaching. The opportunity was not long delayed. The Americans fell back to Buena Vista, within 11 miles of Saltillo, and encamped in a narrow defile, and there a severe battle was fought, Feb. 23, resulting in victory for the Americans. Gen. Stephen W. Kearny (q. v.) was placed in command of the Army of the West, with instructions to conquer New Mexico and California. He left Fort Leavenworth in June, 1846, and, after a journey of 900 miles over the great plains and among mountain ranges, he arrived at Santa Fe, Aug. 18, having met with no resistance. Appointing Charles Brent governor, he marched towards California, and was soon met by an express from Commodore Robert F. Stockt
mmodore Conner, sailed to the Gulf of Mexico to protect American interests there. In September Taylor formed a camp at Corpus Christi, and there remained during the autumn and winter. He was ordered, Jan. 13, 1846, to move from his camp at Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande, opposite the Spanish city of Matamoras, because Mexican troops were gathering in that direction. This was disputed territory between Texas and the neighboring province of Tamaulipas. When he encamped at Point Isabel, March 25, on the coast, 28 miles from Matamoras, Taylor was warned by the Mexicans that he was upon foreign soil. He left his stores at Point Isabel, under a guard of 450 men, and with the remainder of his army advanced to the bank of the Rio Grande, where he established a camp and began the erection of a fort, which he named Fort Brown, in honor of Major Brown, in command there. The Mexicans were so eager for war that, because President Herrera was anxious for peace with the United States, they
possession of the city two days afterwards, and, on April 8, the advance of his army, under General Twiggs, began its march for the capital, by way of Jalapa. Santa Ana had advanced, with 12,000 men, to meet the invaders, and had taken post at Cerro Gordo, a difficult mountain pass at the foot of the Eastern Cordilleras. Scott had followed Twiggs with the rest of his army, and, on April 18, defeated the Mexicans at that strong pass, and, pushing forward, entered Jalapa on the 19th. On the 22d the American flag was unfurled over the Castle of Perote, on the summit of the Eastern Cordilleras, 50 miles from Jalapa. This was considered the strongest fortress in Mexico, excepting Vera Cruz. It was surrendered without resistance, and with it fifty-four pieces of cannon, some mortars, and a large amount of munitions of war. Onward the victorious army marched, and entered the fortified city of Puebla, May 15, a city of 80,000 inhabitants; and there the army rested until August. Bein
. Scott took possession of the city two days afterwards, and, on April 8, the advance of his army, under General Twiggs, began its march for the capital, by way of Jalapa. Santa Ana had advanced, with 12,000 men, to meet the invaders, and had taken post at Cerro Gordo, a difficult mountain pass at the foot of the Eastern Cordilleras. Scott had followed Twiggs with the rest of his army, and, on April 18, defeated the Mexicans at that strong pass, and, pushing forward, entered Jalapa on the 19th. On the 22d the American flag was unfurled over the Castle of Perote, on the summit of the Eastern Cordilleras, 50 miles from Jalapa. This was considered the strongest fortress in Mexico, excepting Vera Cruz. It was surrendered without resistance, and with it fifty-four pieces of cannon, some mortars, and a large amount of munitions of war. Onward the victorious army marched, and entered the fortified city of Puebla, May 15, a city of 80,000 inhabitants; and there the army rested until
February 2nd, 1848 AD (search for this): entry mexico-war-with
ng him to spare the town and treat for peace. He would make no terms, but entered the city, Sept. 13, a conqueror; and from the grand plaza he proclaimed the conquest of the republic of Mexico. Santa. Ana made some feeble efforts to regain lost power, but failed. He was defeated in two slight battles. Before the close of October he was stripped of every command, and fled for safety to the shores of the Gulf. The president of the Mexican Congress assumed provisional authority, and, on Feb. 2, 1848, that body concluded a treaty of peace with the United States commissioners at Guadalupe-Hidalgo. It was ratified by both governments, and, on July 4, 1848, President Polk proclaimed it. It stipulated the evacuation of Mexico by the American troops within three months; the payment of $3,000,000 in hand, and $12,000,000 in four annual instalments, by the United States to Mexico, for New Mexico and California, which had become territory of the United States by conquest, and, in addition, t
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