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Frederick, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
rmy of Northern Virginia at sixty-two thousand of all arms-fifty thousand infantry, eight thousand cavalry, and four thousand artillery-and believe these figures very nearly correct. In this estimate, I adopt the strength of the Federal army as given by its Commander on the 27th of June, but four days before the first encounter at Gettysburg, excluding all consideration of the troops at Harper's Ferry, although General Meade, on assuming command, at once ordered General French to move to Frederick with seven thousand men, to protect his communications, and thus made available a like number of men of the Army of the Potomac, who would otherwise have been detached for this service. On the side of the Confederates, the entire cavalry corps is included. That portion which General Stuart accompanied made a complete circuit of the Federal army, and only joined General Lee on the evening of the second day; and the brigades under Generals Jones and Robertson, which had been left to gua
Front Royal (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
cution during the season for active operations. In pursuance of this design, early in the month of June, General Lee moved his army northward by way of Culpeper, and thence to and down the Valley of Virginia to Winchester. The army had been reorganized into three army corps, designated the First, Second and Third corps, and commanded respectively by Lieutenant-Generals Longstreet, Ewell and A. P. Hill. The Seeonl corps was in advance, and crossed the branches of the Shenandoah, near Front Royal, on the 12th of June. Brushing aside the force of the enemy, under General Milroy, that occupied the lower Valley-most of which was captured and the remnant of which sought refuge in the fortifications at Harper's Ferry-General Ewell crossed the Potomac river with his three divisions in the latter part of June, and, in pursuance of the orders of General Lee, traversed Maryland and advanced into Pennsylvania. General A. P. Hill, whose corps was the last to leave the line of the Rappahanno
Virginia (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
thus prolong the conflict. The Federal army, under General I-looker, had reoccupied the heights opposite Fredericksburg, where it could not be attacked except at a disadvantage. Instead of quietly awaiting the pleasure of the Federal commander in designing and putting into execution some new plan of campaign, General Lee determined to manoeuvre to draw him from his impregnable position and if possible to remove the scene of hostilities beyond the Potomac. His design was to free the State of Virginia, for a time at least, from the presence of the enemy, to transfer the theatre of war to Northern soil, and, by selecting a favorable time and place in which to receive the attack which his adversary would be compelled to make on him, to take the reasonable chances of defeating him in a pitched battle; knowing full well that to obtain such .an advantage there would place him in position to attain far more decisive results than could be hoped for from a like advantage gained in Virginia
Poolesville (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
inety-five thousand. I think General Lee had about ninety thousand infantry, four thousand to five thousand artillery, and about ten thousand cavalry. Again he testifies: I think the returns showed me, when I took command of the army, amounted to about one hundred and five thousand men; included in these were the eleven thousand of General French. In this latter matter the evidence is against General Meade. General Hooker, on the 27th of June, 1863, telegraphed to General Halleck, from Poolesville: My whole force of enlisted men for duty will not exceed one hundred and five thousand (105,000). This would make his total effective force (officers and men) full one hundred and twelve thousand. This dispatch was received by General Halleck at nine A. M. On reaching Sandy Hook, subsequently, on the same day, General Hooker telegraphed as follows concerning the garrison at Harper's Ferry, under General French: I find ten thousand men here in condition to take the field. Here they are
column in that direction. When within a few miles of the town, General Rodes, whose division was in advance, was made aware, by the sharp cas for battle to be made. On reaching the scene of conflict, General Rodes made his dispositions to assail the force with which Hill's tro of Ewell's corps, reached the field with his division, moved in on Rodes' left, and attacked the enemy with his accustomed vigor and impetuol's corps, had meanwhile been advanced to relieve that of Heth; and Rodes, observing the effect of Early's attack, ordered his line forward. visions of Heth and Pender, of Hill's corps, and those of Early and Rodes, of Ewell's corps. On the side of the Federals there was the Firstwn of day on the second. The divisions of Major-Generals Early and Rodes, of Ewell's corps, had been actively engaged, and had sustained somds of colors. In explanation of this lack of expected support, General Rodes, who was on General Early's right, states in his report that af
n the Emmettsburg road on the enemy's left; but fearing that his force was too weak to venture to make an attack, he delayed until Law's brigade joined its division — about noon on the second. In this, General Longstreet clearly admits that he assumed the responsibility of postponing the execution of the orders of the Commanding-General. Owing to the causes assigned, the troops were not in position to attack until 4 P. M. One can imagine what was going on in the Federal lines meanwhile. Round Top, the key to their position, which was not occupied in the morning, they now held in force, and another corps (Sedgwick's) had reached the field. Late as it was, the original plan was adhered to. The two divisions of Longstreet's corps gallantly advanced, forced the enemy back a considerable distance, and captured some trophies and prisoners. Ewell's divisions were ordered forward, and likewise gained additional ground and trophies. On Cemetery Hill the attack by Early's leading brigades
C. M. Wilcox (search for this): chapter 16
of Pickett (First corps) and Heth (Third corps)-the latter, since the wounding of General Heth, commanded by General Pettigrewand the brigades of Lane, Scales and Wilcox. The two divisions were formed in advance — the three brigades as their support. The divisions of Hood and McLaws (First corps) were passive spectators of the md almost as soon as given, and General Pettigrew was instructed to advance upon the same line with Pickett, a portion of Pender's division acting as supports. Wilcox's brigade was ordered to support Pickett's right flank, and the brigades of Lane and Scales acted as supports to Heth's division. General Lane, in his report, saear of its left. The assaulting column really consisted of Pickett's divisiontwo brigades in front, and one in the second line as a supportwith the brigade of Wilcox in the rear of its right to protect that flank; while Heth's division moved forward on Pickett's left in echelon, or with the alignment so imperfect and so droopi
with squadrons covering the intervening ground and connecting them-one in front, one in rear upon the left flank, and one in rear upon the right flank. I found a section of artillery upon the road and a part of a regiment of infantry, under Colonel Hundly. I had the section to open upon the enemy, but it had no effect, except to increase the speed of his flanking columns, and made no impression upon that one advancing directly upon our front. After firing ten rounds with no better effect, I is regiment as skirmishers in retreat, and Colonel Campbell and Major Flournoy, with the First, Thirteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth, in all about two hundred and fifty muskets, to move to the rear, and to fight as they went. I also directed Colonel Hundly to deploy his men as skirmishers. The cavalry of the enemy charged all around us. Colonel Campbell broke up by a well-delivered fire the column charging down the road, and thus gave time to the section of artillery to cross the river. The e
H. H. Bain (search for this): chapter 16
and regret to say he was wounded and captured when quitting the trenches. Lieutenant-Colonel Lindsay, while temporarily in command of my brigade, discovered fine qualities as an officer, and Colonel Henderson was conspicuous for his efficiency and bravery while, for a short time, in command of Stovall's brigade, under trying circumstances. I would again commend Captain A. L. Stuart, A. I. G., for his courage, judgment and promptness. I regret to state that he was severely wounded. Captain H. H. Bain, A. A. G., and Captain G. Norton, A. A. A. G., were always prompt, efficient and gallant; and especially so was Lieutenant C. Eustis, my aide-de-camp. Captain J. Hodges, A. Q. M., and Major W. V. Crouch, C. S., have discharged their duties throughout with fidelity and intelligence. I have to announce and to deplore the death of Qaptain C. W. Cushman, Thirtieth Louisiana Volunteers, who was killed at the trenches. He was a brave, intelligent and efficient officer. Nor less zealous a
J. Longstreet (search for this): chapter 16
by a simultaneous advance by his corps. General Longstreet was unexpectedly detained, however, as won — about noon on the second. In this, General Longstreet clearly admits that he assumed the respoal plan was adhered to. The two divisions of Longstreet's corps gallantly advanced, forced the enemyarge force of the enemy near Gettysburg, General Longstreet was urged to hasten his march, and this,y rate, it would be unreasonable to hold General Longstreet alone accountable for this. Indeed, grehe attack. The general plan was unchanged. Longstreet, reinforced by Pickett's three brigades, whiEwell, who had orders to co-operate with General Longstreet, and who was, of course, not aware of and understood the arrangements to be that General Longstreet should endeavor to force the enemy's lineneral Lane, in his report, says: General Longstreet ordered me to form in rear of the right stituted all of the Confederate line held by Longstreet's troops, and it is not apparent how they we[15 more...]
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