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Viola, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
ents, see specific index, next page. The following list and classification of musical instruments is given in Berlioz's Treatise upon Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration :— stringed instruments. Vibration effected by the bow Violin. Viola. Viole d'amour. Violoncello. Double-bass. Played by the hand Harp. Cithern. Guitar. Banjo. Mandolin. With keysPiano-forte. wind instruments. With reeds Hautboy. Corno inglesi. Bassoon. Basson de quinte. Double-bassoon. Clari Clavicitherium.Hydraulicon.Reboe. Clavicymbal.Jew's-harp.Recorder. Claviole.Kalidophone.Reed. Concertina.Kallifthorgan.Reed-organ. Contra-bass.Kemengeh.Sackbut. Sax-horn.Tabor.Tuning-fork. Saxophone.Tabret.Tympano. Seraphine.Tambourine.Viola. Serpent.Tam-tam.Viole d'amour. Side-drum.Theorbo.Violin. Sistrum.Timbrel.Violoncello. Snare-drum.Tom-tom.Violone. Spinet.Triangle.Virginal. Sticcato.Trombone.Wood-harmonicon. Stop.Trumpet.Zithern. Syrinx. Mu′sic-box. (Music.) An<
id against a block of magnetic iron became attached thereto, and directed attention to the mysterious attraction. Thales, B. C. 640, discoursed on amber and the magnet, and supposed them to be living because they had a moving force. From Eastern Asia has been handed down the knowledge of the directive force and declination of a freely suspended magnetic bar; from Phoenicia and Egypt the knowledge of chemical preparations (as glass, animal and vegetable coloring substances, and metallic oxia year after Columbus's third voyage), in the expedition of Alonso de Hojeda. He could not have had any motive in feigning a voyage in 1497, for he, as well as Columbus, was firmly persuaded until his death that his discoveries were a part of Eastern Asia. For more than 20 years after his death, which took place in 1512, and indeed until the calumnious statements of Schoner in the Opusculum Geographicum, 1533, and of Servet in the Lyons edition of Ptolemy's Geography, in 1535, we find no trace
Nineveh (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
flector and condenser are employed to direct the sun's rays on the object. In a lucernal microscope the rays of a lamp are similarly directed. The magnifying power of glass balls was known in early times to the Chinese, Japanese, Assyrians, and Egyptians, and more lately among the Greeks and Romans. The use of lenses for microscopes long preceded their application to telescopes. Sir David Brewster exhibited one in 1852 which was made of rock crystal, and was found among the ruins of Nineveh. The refractive power of glass was known to Ptolemy, who gives a table of the deviation luminous rays experience when passing through glass under different angles of incidence. Descartes discovered the law that the amount of this refraction is proportional to the sine of the angle of incidence, and from that time date all great discoveries in optics. Glass balls, called burning spheres, were sold in Athens before the Christian era. Their magnifying power was mentioned by the Roman p
San Jose (California, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
roduct is but a small proportion of the amount obtained by a careful analysis. It is understood that in Europe the ores are heated upon open arches and the vapors condensed within brick chambers. For detailed description of the process and apparatus, we must refer the reader to Ure's Dictionary and chemical treatises, as the subject is not so clearly within the scope of this work that it can be treated at any length. The extensive quicksilver mine of New Almaden is twelve miles from San Jose in California, and has had the benefit of energy, skill, and capital in its development. A good description of the place and the works was written in 1857, and given in Harper's Magazine, June, 1863. Changes may have since taken place. The mode of mining and breaking into pieces suitable for the furnace has nothing peculiar to offer, but the condensing-furnaces are worthy of notice. They are sixteen in number, arranged side by side, and extend a distance of several hundred feet beneath
Austria (Austria) (search for this): chapter 13
tch-splint ma-chine′. Matches of cylindrical form have been made by compressing the quadrangular slips or drawing the wood through holes in a draw-plate. The Austrian circular matches are cut from planks of clean grained wood, by means of hand-planes carrying a series of steel tubes, which produce long, thin splints of wood ofrnace passing with the metalliferous fumes to a series of condensing-chambers. See condenser. See previous article. The latter is the plan adopted at Idria in Austria, the former in Bavaria and California. Dr. Ure's retort-furnace, erected at Landsberg in Bavaria, resembles the apparatus for the distillation of coalgas. In Sana, a Neapolitan, in 1618. Burrell asserts that the Jansens, father and son, made the first microscope and presented it to Prince Maurice and Archduke Albert of Austria. The invention was, however, clearly anticipated by Roger Bacon. Spectacles were in use A. D. 1200. The double microscope was invented by Farncelli in 1624.
Medina (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
early known, and is referred to by Homer, Aristotle, and Pliny. Says Pliny: The magnet-stone is found in Cantabria. We read that the architect Dinochares was employed by Ptolemy to roof a temple at Alexandria with magnet-stone, by means of which an iron image of his sister Arsinoe might remain perpetually suspended. Both the architect and the king died before the completion of the work. This was probably the original of the popular fable of the suspension of the coffin of Mahomet at Medina between two magnets. The name is derived by the imaginative Greeks from one Magnes, a shepherd on Mt. Ida, whose iron crook being casually laid against a block of magnetic iron became attached thereto, and directed attention to the mysterious attraction. Thales, B. C. 640, discoursed on amber and the magnet, and supposed them to be living because they had a moving force. From Eastern Asia has been handed down the knowledge of the directive force and declination of a freely suspended
Paris, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
eously attaches itself. When an iron needle is touched by the stone, it at once points towards the North Star; from whence it has become useful to those who navigate the seas. Latini of Florence, the preceptor of Dante, in a work published in Paris in 1260, entitled the Treasure, wrote thus:— When I was in England, Friar Bacon showed me a magnet,—an ugly black stone to which iron doth willingly cling. You rub a needle upon it; the which needle, being placed upon a point, remains suspewas subdued by the Moors. An authority states that it was known in Norway previous to 1266. Dr. Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth, states that P. Venutus brought a compass direct from China in 1260. See Klaproth's work on this subject, Paris, 1834; Sir Snow Harris's Rudimentary magnetism ; the researches of Biot, Stanislaus Julien, etc. About 1320, Flavio Gioja, a pilot of Positano, not far from Amalfi in the Kingdom of Naples, was instrumental in the improvement of the compass, a
Cat Head (Alaska, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
Arch.Dean. Astel.Dike. Astyllen.Dip. Attle.Dip-head level. Auget.Down-cast, Back.Drift. Bank.Dropper. Bar.Drowned level. Barrow.Dums. Basset.Fang. Batch.Fanging. Bed.Fault. Bede.Flang. Bedway.Flookan. Bend.Floran. Blasting.Fluke. Blind level.Foge. Bonney.Gad. Bord.Gallery. Bottom-lift.Gangue. Bottoms.Ginging. Brace.Goaf. Branch.Gob. Brattice.Gobbing. Breast.Gold-mining. Brob.Gold-washer. Brood.Grain-tin. Bunch.Grapnel Burden.Griddle. Cage.Gunnie. Case.Gurnies. Cat-head.Hade. Cauf.Halvans. Caunter-lode.Hanging-side. Channeling-machine.Hard pyrites. Charger.Hard salt Cistern.Heading. Claying-bar.Hitch. Coal-boring bit.Hogger-pipe. Coal-breaker.Holing. Coal-cutting machine.Horns Coal-mining machine.Hushing. Coal-screen.Hutch. Coal-washing machine.Jamb. Coffering.Jinny-road. Coffin.Jump. Corbond. Corf. Costeening. Counter. Course. Cow. Cradle. Creaze. Creep. Cribbing. Cribble. Crop. Cross-course. Cross-cut. Cross-lode. Crow-bar.
Bristol (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 13
ike manner carries off the bags from the station. Other plans have scoops or cylinders on the car which pocket the mail-bag suspended from a crane or lying upon a support from which it may be shoveled, picked, or shot by the device on the car. A somewhat similar converse arrangement deposits at the station the bag carried by the car. Mail-coach. A carriage chartered by the postoffice department or hired to carry postal matter. Mail-coaches were introduced by Robert Palmer of Bristol, England, in 1784. Mail′ing-ma-chine′. A machine for attaching addresses to newspapers, etc., for transmission by mail. See addressing-machine; also, Ringwalt's Encyelopaedia of printing, pp. 226, 227. Mail-net. (Fabric.) A form of loom-made net, which is a combination of common gauze and whipnet in the same fabric. The whole fabric is a continued succession of right-angled triangles, of which the woof forms the basis, the gauze part the perpendiculars, and the whip part the hypo<
Indian Ocean (search for this): chapter 13
was reserved for Vasco da Gama to first pass beyond the region of storms which surrounds the Cape and enter upon the waters, usually more placid, of the great Indian Ocean. Humboldt says: I have shown elsewhere how a knowledge of the period at which Vespucci was named Piloto Mayor would alone be sufficient to refute the than their own weight. Worthy Arabian; we have here a description of a magneto-electric needle used in the Levant; a magnetized floating needle used in the Indian Ocean; and a correct statement of the Archimedean discovery of specific gravities. This was written about the time of Roger Bacon, 250 years before Da Vinci, 350 yediness to the needle. Vasco da Gama, who circumnavigated Africa, doubling the Cape of Good Hope, November 20, 1497, testifies his surprise at meeting in the Indian Ocean seven small Arab vessels provided with the compass, quadrants, sea-charts, and other instruments, equal to the Portuguese. We do not wonder, for the China sea
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