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Oriskany (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
ers and wealth till their annual tax amounted to two thousand pounds in Connecticut currency. In the winter of 1776, the people aided Washington with two companies of infantry, though their men were all needed to protect their own homes. Knowing the alliance of the British with the Six Nations, they built a line of ten forts as places of refuge. The Seneca tribe kept fresh in memory their chiefs Chap. V.} 1778. June. and braves who fell in the conflict with the New York husbandmen at Oriskany. Their king, Sucingerachton, was both in war and in council the foremost man in all the Six Nations. Compared with him, the Mohawk, Brandt, who had been but very lately known upon the war path, was lightly esteemed. Haldimand to Germain, 15 Sept., 1779. Brandt was not at Wyoming. This appears from Butler's report; and compare Brodhead Documents, VIII. 752. His attachment to the English increased to a passion on the alliance of America with the French, for whom he cherished implacable
Canada (Canada) (search for this): chapter 6
1778. had demanded. There was a general cry for peace. Edward Gibbon to J. Holroyd, 2 Dec., 1777, and 4 Dec., 1777. The king, in January, 1778, confessed to Lord North: The time may come when it will be wise to abandon all North America but Canada, Nova Scotia, and the Floridas; but then the generality of the nation must see it first in that light. Donne, II. 118. Lord Rockingham was convinced himself and desired to convince the public of the impossibility of going on with the war. Cto be a hundred chances to one in favor of capturing the garrison on Rhode Island, and thus ending British pretensions to sovereignty over America. Robert Livingston expressed the hope that congress, in treating for peace, would insist on having Canada, Hudson's Bay, the Floridas, and all the continent independent. On the eighth the French fleet, which a whim of 8. Sullivan had detained for ten days in the offing, ran past the British batteries into the harbor of Newport. The landing had b
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
ry streams, rise on the east, while the western declivities are luxuriantly fertile. Connecticut, whose charter from Charles the Second was older than that of Pennsylvania, using its prior claim to lands north of the Mamaroneck river, had colonized this beautiful region and governed it as its county of Westmoreland. The settleme. Through his interest, and by the blandishments of gifts and pay and chances of revenge, Colonel John Butler lured the Seneca warriors to cross the border of Pennsylvania under the British flag. The party of savages and rangers, numbering between five hundred and seven hundred men, fell down the Tioga river, and on the last ddeaths, not to recover and hold; and the ancient affection for England was washed out in blood. When the leader of the inroad turned to desolate other scenes, Pennsylvania was left in the undisputed possession of her soil. After the retreat of the British, her government, Chap. V.} 1778. as well as that of New Jersey, used th
Connecticut (Connecticut, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
tributary streams, rise on the east, while the western declivities are luxuriantly fertile. Connecticut, whose charter from Charles the Second was older than that of Pennsylvania, using its prior c754, increased in numbers and wealth till their annual tax amounted to two thousand pounds in Connecticut currency. In the winter of 1776, the people aided Washington with two companies of infantry,ame. Maryland, which was on all sides precisely limited by its charter,—while Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Virginia, and at least one of the Carolinas, might claim by royal grant an almost Rhode Island and its garrison of six thousand men. He had in advance summoned Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island to send quotas of their militia for the expedition. The council of war of ude enough to acknowledge his obligations. The veil of ordinary events, thus the Governor of Connecticut expressed the belief of the state, covers the hand of the supreme Disposer of them, so that m
Florida (Florida, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
ning the hope of reducing the north, indulged the expectation of conquering all the states to the south of the Susquehanna. Germain to Clinton, 8 March, 1778. For this end the British commander-in-chief at New York was ordered to despatch before October, if possible, a thousand men to re-enforce Pensacola, and three thousand to take Savannah. Two thousand more were destined as a re-enforcement to St. Augustine. Thus strengthened, General Prevost would be able to march in triumph from East Florida across lower Georgia. The new policy was inaugurated by dissensions between the minister for America in England and the highest British officials in America, and was fol- Chap. V.} 1778. lowed by never-ending complaints. Lord Carlisle and his associate commissioners deprecated the seeming purpose of enfeebling the establishment at New York by detachments for different and distant services. Under these appearances of weakness, so they reported, our cause has visibly declined. Lor
Department de Ville de Paris (France) (search for this): chapter 6
sent to America the greatest force which any European power ever ventured to transport into that continent, it was not strong enough to attack its enemy, nor to prevent them from receiving assistance. The war measures of the administration were, therefore, so repugnant to sound policy that they ceased to be right. Edward Gibbon to J. Holroyd, 13 Aug., 1777. After that surrender, In 1847 the Archbishop of York, whose memory went back to those days, and who was with Thomas Grenville in Paris in 1782, told me, that after the affair of Bunker Hill very many persons, after the surrender of Burgoyne almost every one, gave up the expectation that England would be able to enforce the dependence of the colonies. he agreed that, Chap. V.} 1778. since the substance of power was lost, the name of independence might be granted to the Americans. General Howe coupled his retirement from active service with the avowal that the disposable resources of his country could produce no decisive re
Massachusetts (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
out amendment; and on the fifth of May, 1779, the delegates of Delaware did the same. Maryland, which was on all sides precisely limited by its charter,—while Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Virginia, and at least one of the Carolinas, might claim by royal grant an almost boundless extension to the north and west,—alone arre Washington proposed to employ the temporary superiority at sea in the capture of Rhode Island and its garrison of six thousand men. He had in advance summoned Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island to send quotas of their militia for the expedition. The council of war of Rhode Island, exceeding his requirement, called out oe for twenty days from the first of August, and ordered the remainder to be ready at a minute's warning. Out of his own feeble army he spared one brigade from Massachusetts and one from Rhode Island, of one thousand each, and they were followed by a further detachment. Directing Sullivan, who was placed over the district of Rhode
Cherry Valley, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
mercilessly against men that sued for quarter. A band led by Captain Patrick Ferguson in October, Oct. after destroying the shipping in Little Egg harbor, spread through the neighboring country to burn the houses and waste the lands of the patriots. On the night of the fifteenth they surprised light infantry under Pulaski's command; and, cumbering themselves with no prisoners, killed all they could. In November a large party of Indians with bands of Nov. tories and regulars entered Cherry valley by an unguarded pass, and, finding the fort too strong to be taken, murdered and scalped more than thirty of the Chap. V.} 1778. Nov. inhabitants, most of them women and children. The story of these massacres was repeated from village to village, and strengthened the purpose of resistance. With the year 1778, South Carolina, which for two years had been unvisited by an enemy, after long deliberation established a permanent form of government. Immediately after the general declarat
Hudson (New Jersey, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
before it comes to rest. On the second of July, the president and several members of congress met once more in Philadelphia. On the ninth, the articles of confederation, engrossed 9. on parchment, were signed by eight states. On the tenth, congress issued a circular to the other five, 10. urging them to conclude the glorious compact which was to unite the strength, wealth, and councils of the whole. North Carolina acceded on the twenty-first; Georgia, on the twenty-fourth. New 21. Jersey demanded for the United States the regula- 24. tion of trade and the ownership of the ungranted north-western domain: but, after unassisted efforts for a more efficient union, the state, on the twentyfifth of the following November, accepted the confederacy without amendment; and on the fifth of May, 1779, the delegates of Delaware did the same. Maryland, which was on all sides precisely limited by its charter,—while Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Virginia, and at least one of the C
White Plains (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
overnment or its army to reduce the United States served only to promote its independence. In 1775 Chap. V.} 1778. Sept. they sought to annihilate the rebellion by attacking it at its source; and before many months they were driven out of Boston. In 1776 the acquisition of New York was to prelude the one last campaign for crushing all resistance; in 1777 Philadelphia was taken, but only to be evacuated in 1778. To a friend in Virginia Washington wrote in August, as he came again upon White Plains: After two years manoeuvring and the strangest vicissitudes, both armies are brought back to the very point they set out from, and the offending party at the beginning is now reduced to the use of the spade and pickaxe for defence. The hand of Providence has been so conspicuous in all this, that he must be worse than an infidel that lacks faith, and more than wicked that has not gratitude enough to acknowledge his obligations. The veil of ordinary events, thus the Governor of Connecticu
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