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France, measured with an instrument of this kind, in 1550, a degree of the meridian between Paris and Amiens, and found it to be 303 toises less than Picard afterward found it to be. It is supposed that the revolutions of the wheel were noted by striking on a bell. The measurement of a degree of latitude has been made and recorded not less than fourteen times in the last 1,000 years. Its length varies in different countries, as the facts show and theory had supposed. Eratosthenes, B. C. 276, attempted the measurement of the size of the earth, by ascertaining the distance between Alexandria and Syene, the differences of latitude between which places he had found to be 1/50 of the earth's circumference. Some previous measurements are mentioned under armil (which see). Hipparchus of Nicaeea in Bithynia, 162 B. C., laid down a map by the determination of the latitude and longitude of places. A degree was measured on the shores of the Red Sea by the Khalif al Maimoun, the son of
the size of the earth, by ascertaining the distance between Alexandria and Syene, the differences of latitude between which places he had found to be 1/50 of the earth's circumference. Some previous measurements are mentioned under armil (which see). Hipparchus of Nicaeea in Bithynia, 162 B. C., laid down a map by the determination of the latitude and longitude of places. A degree was measured on the shores of the Red Sea by the Khalif al Maimoun, the son of Haroun al Raschid, about A. D. 820. The exact determination of the length of a degree was considered of so much importance that, in 1735, the Academy of Sciences of Paris dispatched two commissions, one to Peru, the other to Lapland. The latter party accomplished their mission and returned in 16 months; the former party, after contending with great hardships for 10 years, accomplished their mission, as Frenchmen in pursuit of an idea will do, if anybody can. Since the work of the French Academicians, measurements have
ntury. A planetarium is described in a letter from Angelo Politiano to his friend Francesco Casa, as seen by the former at Florence in the fifteenth century. The inventor was one Lorenzo of Florence, and the apparatus was constructed to illustrate the Ptolemaic theory of the heavens. The various parts were moved by trains of cog-wheels. Life of A. Politiano, published by Cadell and Davis, London, about 1800. A planetary clock was made by Finee, 1553, and a planetarium by De Rheita in 1650. Or′se-dew. Leaf metal of bronze. Dutch metal. Or′tho-graph. A drawing representing a structure in elevation, external or internal. The internal orthograph is usually termed a vertical section or sciagraph. The ground plan is the ichnograph. The view of the whole building, the scenograph. Or-tho-scop′ic lens. (Optics.) An arrangement of two achromatic compound lenses, separated by an interval. Or-tho-pae′dic Ap-pa-ra′tus. (Surgical.) A device to corr
r from a clepsydra. There is a reference also to a similar instrument in the third century. A planetarium is described in a letter from Angelo Politiano to his friend Francesco Casa, as seen by the former at Florence in the fifteenth century. The inventor was one Lorenzo of Florence, and the apparatus was constructed to illustrate the Ptolemaic theory of the heavens. The various parts were moved by trains of cog-wheels. Life of A. Politiano, published by Cadell and Davis, London, about 1800. A planetary clock was made by Finee, 1553, and a planetarium by De Rheita in 1650. Or′se-dew. Leaf metal of bronze. Dutch metal. Or′tho-graph. A drawing representing a structure in elevation, external or internal. The internal orthograph is usually termed a vertical section or sciagraph. The ground plan is the ichnograph. The view of the whole building, the scenograph. Or-tho-scop′ic lens. (Optics.) An arrangement of two achromatic compound lenses, separated b
receives an oscillation in a vertical plane, while the sleeve to which its hub is secured is oscillated in a horizontal plane, so that it receives a double oscillation, once around its own axis and also around the axis of the vertical shaft. In another form, the blades are oscillated with their rockframe, and are feathered, so as to move forward edgeways and move backward flatways to propel the boat. A canal-boat, propelled by oars, was used on the Sankey Canal, Lancashire, England, in 1797. The oars made 18 strokes per minute, and were operated by a steam-engine. Oar-swiv′el. A pivotal device for an oar on the gunwale. A rowlock. In the example, the oar is hung in gimbals, which allow it vibration in any plane, and it has besides a capacity for rotation on its own longitudinal axis in feathering. See rowlock. Oast. A hop-drying kiln. Oast. The kiln has an upward draft, the floor being perforated and the hops lying upon hair-cloth. In the example, the fur
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