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Sweden (Sweden) (search for this): chapter 13
was not the only European country in which the simple furnace just described was used for smelting iron ore, for those of Sweden and Norway, 300 years ago, were of substantially the same character. The iron obtained from them was a spongy mass, whicn out the greater portion of the carbon and silicon and render it malleable. The refining process observed by M. Jars in Sweden, in 1750, is identical with that described by Aiken in 1836 as having been used in India for a length of time not now read, it is again heated and hammered until it is rendered quite malleable. A modification of this process was adopted in Sweden, being derived from the puddling process of Cort, and consisted in covering the metal in the crucible with scoriae and stthe Palatinate, and of New Almaden in California, are extensive and rich. The ore is also found in Peru, China, Hungary, Sweden, Japan, and Chili. In the furnace the ore is subjected to distillation in retorts which lead to condensing-chambers, o
Hesse (Germany) (search for this): chapter 13
ezzanine story is a half-story; one lower than the stories above and below it. Mez′zo-ri-li-e′vo. The moderate prominence of a sculptured figure from the plane surface to which it is attached. It is also known as demi or half-relief, and is a grade between alto-rilievo or high-relief, and basso-rilievo or low-relief. See rilievo. Mez′zo-tint-en-grav′ing. The inventor of this art is believed to have been Colonel Ludwig von Siegen, a lieutenant-colonel in the service of the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel. Portraits executed by him exist, having the date of 1643. Prince Rupert gave so much attention to it, and was so instrumental in bringing it into favor, that he has been credited with the invention. Sir Christopher Wren has also been cited as the inventor, but his claims are antedated by Prince Rupert. Mr. Evelyn showed me the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. — Pepys's Diary, November 1, 1665. The
Melita (Malta) (search for this): chapter 13
chamber, 19 inches; diameter of chamber, 9 inches. The weight of the mortar was 14,700 pounds; that of the bed, 16,000 pounds; of the empty shell, 916 pounds; and the bursting-charge, 99 pounds. The chamber would contain about 30 pounds of powder, but 12 pounds were found to project the shell to a distance of 800 or 900 yards. This monster affair burst with a charge of less than 20 pounds of powder after a few rounds firing. Among the largest mortars on record are those of the island of Malta. The rocks here are not only scarped into fortifications, but likewise into fireengines or artillery to defend those fortifications; being hollowed out in many places into the form of immense mortars. These mortars they fill with cantars of cannon-balls, shells, stones, and other deadly materials; and if an enemy's ship should approach with a design to land, they fire the whole into the air. The effect of this tremendous invention must be very great, as it will produce a shower for 200
y.) A machine for cutting grain or clover. A great many devices were used before a satisfactory conclusion was reached. Plate XXX. shows a large number of distinct inventions, involving reciprocating and circular movements of single knives and knives working in apposition. The illustrations and group headings will be readily understood, and the dates will add interest to the list, showing the length of time that man has been hammering at the problem. The harvester used in the plains of Rhaetia, in the time of Pliny, had no proper motion, but was simply a comb whose teeth had sharp edges which cut and tore the head of the grain from the stalk and allowed it to be brushed into the box of the machine. See reaper ; Cloverharvester. Mowing was a familiar duty in Palestine, and the Scripture references to it show that the ardent sun cured the grass in a short time, as with us. The sudden wilting and quick drying which form the basis of so many beautiful comparisons in the Bible ar
England (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 13
rious stages of completion. These are for the use of agents and commercial travelers trading with such articles. But the above-described curiosities are huge compared with those next set before us. We are introduced to a model of the famous Great Britain, made to a scale of 1/40 of an inch to the foot, so that the length of the model is about 8 inches, and the breadth about 1 1/4 inch. It is full-rigged, with six masts and their accompanying spars, and all the hatchways and deck fittings. The deck of this tiny vessel is lifted off and a magnifier is handed to us; this resolves a little heap of metal scraps into an accurate model of the original engines with which the Great Britain was fitted. So small is this model that it stands upon less space than the area of a shilling. An annular trough of water is produced, and the ship is launched into the watery circuit. A tap is turned, and compressed air rushes through a tube, and off goes the tiny ship to circumnavigate its little se
Geneva, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
es records the fact as sufficiently worthy of mention, and it is probable that in the intervening 300 years they had acquired considerable notoriety in the cure of chronic complaints. See Dr. Thompson's Researches in Palestine. Berzelius, the Swedish chemist, a yearly visitor to the Carlsbad waters, is believed to have been the first to make a successful imitation of mineral water. Struve did the same shortly afterward. The first manufactory was established by Goser, an apothecary at Geneva, about 1790, who sold annually 40,000 bottles of Seltzer. Struve soon decided to devote himself to this speciality, and obtained patents in the chief European countries. In the modern process of manufacturing mineral waters, carbonic-acid water is first made. The various chemicals are dissolved in a certain order, and some notable ingredients are produced by resulting chemical combinations, as, for instance, in a water containing chloride of sodium and carbonate of baryta, the latter wo
Hungary (Hungary) (search for this): chapter 13
abar?) were received yearly from that source, and that the Greeks received it from thence 800 years previously to the date at which he wrote (A. D. 70). (See amalgam.) It is now mined extensively at Idria, in the Schiefergebirge, and is found in Hungary, many parts of Germany, in China, Japan, Mexico, Honduras, Columbia, Peru, and California. The modes of obtaining mercury by the decomposition and distillation of cinnabar have been very imperfect and wasteful; and even at this day, with all rous. The Almaden mines of Spain were known to the Greeks 700 B. C., and were celebrated in the time of Pliny. The mines of Idria, the Palatinate, and of New Almaden in California, are extensive and rich. The ore is also found in Peru, China, Hungary, Sweden, Japan, and Chili. In the furnace the ore is subjected to distillation in retorts which lead to condensing-chambers, or the blocks of ore are roasted in a furnace, the whole volatile results of the furnace passing with the metallifero
St. Augustine (Florida, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
ndean pipes the transition is easy, and we accordingly find the latter in vogue at a very early period. The Chinese tam-kim, which is played by opening and closing the ends of a series of pipes filled by a single mouth-piece, is an analogous device. See Plate XLIII., Bonanni, supra. The bagpipe is said to have come from Lydia, and is mentioned by Suetonius in his life of Nero. See bagpipe. The organ is of great antiquity, but the word organ is applied in the Bible, according to St. Augustine, to a variety of instruments. The invention of the hydraulic organ is attributed to the Alexandrian Greeks. (See organ.) The pneumatic organ, even in its most primitive form, does not appear to have been used prior to the seventh century. The cithara, or an equivalent instrument, is the most ancient of the stringed class known, being mentioned in the fourth chapter of Genesis; Jubal having been the progenitor of such as handle the harp (or cithara) and organ. The connection between
Cavallo (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
ion that contains no nitrate of silver being as transparent as if the dark places were solid wires or metallic plates placed in the focus of the eye-glass. See Pearson's Practical astronomy, Vol. II.: Brewster's Philosophical instruments. Cavallo's micrometer is a small, semi-transparent scale of mother-of-pearl, about 1/20 of an inch broad and divided by finely ruled lines. It is situated within the tube, at the focus of the eye-lens of the telescope, with its divided edge in convenien A lateral passage where a shaft intersects a seam of coal. Moth′er-lye. The liquid remaining after all the salts that will regularly crystallize have been extracted from a solution. Moth′er-of-pearl mi-crom′e-ter. The micrometer of Cavallo. A thin semi-transparent slip of mother-of-pearl, 1/20 of an inch wide, is ruled with fine graduations, and mounted within the tube at the focus of the eye-lens of the telescope, where the image of the object is formed. The divided edge is bro<
Saw Mill (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
outchouc-mill.Porcelain-mill. Cement-mill.Porphyrization. Chilian mill.Post-mill. Chocolate-mill.Powder-mill. Cider-mill.Pug-mill. Clay-mill.Pulp-mill. Coal-breaker.Quartz-mill. Cocoa-mill.Quern. Coffee-huller.Rasping-mill. Coffee-mill.Revolving-pan mill. Corn-sheller.Rice-huller. Corn-mill.Rice-mill. Croze-mill.Rock-pulverizer. Crushing-mill.Roller-mill. Current-mill.Roughing-mill. Cylinder-mill.Runner-ball. Decorticator.Sand-crusher. Devil.Sand-pulverizer. Diamond-mortar.Saw-mill. Disintegrator.Sheller. Drug-mill.Shingle-mill. Edge-mill.Shingling-mill. Flatting-mill.Slitting-mill. Flint-mill.Smock-mill. Fulling-mill.Smoothing-mill. Gig-mill.Smut-mill. Grain-bruiser.Snuff-mill. Grain-huller.Sorghum-mill. Grinding-mill (varieties, see grinding-mill).Spice-mill. Spinning-mill. Grist-mill.Stamp-mill. Gunpowder-mill.Stamping-mill. Hand-mill.Steel-mill. Hominy-mill.Stone-mill. Horizontal mill.Sugar-mill. Huller.Sugar-cane mill. Indigo-mill.Throwing-mill.
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