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sausage-machine. Mine. 1. A subterraneous passage from which coal, metals, metallic ores, are obtained. Depth of Mines.Feet. Eselchact, Bohemia (silver).3,778 Dunkenfield, England (coal)2,504 Pendleton, England (coal)2,504 Linden, Prussia (salt well)2,331 Tresavean, England (copper)2,112 Durham, England (coal)1,773 Valenciana, Mexico (silver)1,686 Crown Point, Comstock lode, Nevada (silver)1,400 Santa Rosa, Mexico (silver)1,200 2. Crude ironstone, known as raw-mine, greester shall be able to play them upon the organ, harpsichord, etc. (Phil. Tran., 1747.) Creed invented a machine for this purpose in England in 1747; Hennersdorf of Berlin, one in the following year. John Freke in England, Unger and Hohlfield in Prussia, worked at the idea. Unger formed a part of the harpsichord. The device of Hohlfield was attachable to any instrument. Descriptions were transmitted to the Academy of Berlin in 1752, and published in Brunswick in 1774. Mus′ket. (Fire-
Cairo, Ill. (Illinois, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
number of guns carried in broadside by another vessel. Admiral Porter, after a lengthened experience with all sorts of iron and wooden vessels in action under almost all possible circumstances, gave his opinion that the monitors built on the Western rivers were the most powerful vessels of war ever launched. He says: The first monitor was a perfect success, and capable of defeating anything that then floated. The one first completed at Cincinnati, in 1864, he thought, could commence at Cairo and, going down the river, destroy everything we have on these waters, unless they ran away ; and this without disparagement to the powerful fleet of vessels then on the Mississippi, several of which had received over a hundred shots each, while under the Admiral's command, without apparent damage. Of the monitors at Charleston, he says: They have done what no other vessels ever built could possibly have accomplished. Some 50 monitors were built for the United States government, between
Australia (Australia) (search for this): chapter 13
curious curves and contortions, indicating the action of local magnetic forces. It begins in latitude 60° south, below Australia; crosses that island, extends through the Eastern Archipelago with a double sinuosity so as to cross the equator three ld climates. Attempts have been made to freeze meat by artificial means in countries where live stock is plenty, as in Australia and Texas, and transport it in a frozen state to market. Several hundred tons of beef were packed in a refrigerating ship in Australia, but the attempt to transport it to England failed because of the exhaustion of the supply of ice. Dried meat is usually prepared by cutting in thin strips and hanging in the sun. The American Indians pound their meat in wooden mccupation, which was all in the interest of aristocracy and monopoly. The merinos are now kept in immense numbers in Australia and Van Dieman's Land. Turdetania, the country of the Guadalquiver, was famous for the quality of its wool in the ti
Newfoundland (Canada) (search for this): chapter 13
one does not give him credit for having discovered the remaining parts of India, it must be from personal hostility. In 1502 he writes to Pope Alexander, I discovered 1,400 islands and 333 leagues of the coast of Asia. Above is a representation of the western hemisphere of John Schoner's globe of 1520, fourteen years after the death of Columbus, and, no doubt, published in good faith. In it the terra-borealis forms the only trace of the North American continent, and might answer for Newfoundland. Cuba and parts of the South American continent are plotted as islands of the eastern coast of Asia, adjacent to Java major, Java minor, and Zipango, which more immediately fringed the Asiatic coast. Cuba, the Antilia of Columbus, and yet the Queen of the Antilles, lies north and south, parallel with the coveted island of Zipango (Japan), which so persistently eluded the search of the man of Genoa, who tried to push his caravel through a continent. Sea-charts were brought to England,
Switzerland (Switzerland) (search for this): chapter 13
, furniture, dress, habits, and medicines, was also her mistress in the ceramic art. Geodetical models, in which the contour of the earth is shown in relief, are among the most interesting of all geographical representations. The mountains of Switzerland were modeled in miniature, by General Pfiffer. In modeling a tract of country, it is usual, as in plotting a profile of a route, to exaggerate the hights to make them more observable. With such vast precipices and eminences as Switzerland afSwitzerland affords, the necessity for vertical exaggeration is not so great; but it is apparent that in a modeled map of a country 200 miles square, having no elevation exceeding 1,760 feet, a rise of 1/3 of an inch on a surface 16 feet square (one inch to the mile) would not be readily seen. The insignificance of the elevations on the earth's crust, compared with the area of the surface, is not generally appreciated, and it is common in plotting profiles of routes as in modeling the superficies, to give t
Ilva (Italy) (search for this): chapter 13
he ore is of extraordinary purity. At a moderate red heat, a mixture of finely pounded charcoal and oxide of iron will have the effect of eliminating the oxygen, and this process is believed to have been in use in ancient times in the island of Elba. The ore is remarkable for its freedom from earthy impurities, and after breaking into small pieces was imbedded in charcoal on the floor of a reverberatory furnace. After the oxygen was separated by the action of the charcoal, the temperature w to the bottom of the crucible in a carbonized state, differing in respect of its greater proportion of carbon from the spongy and less fusible mass of iron, such as was produced by the processes above referred to as carried on in ancient times in Elba, both anciently and more lately in India and Styria, and elsewhere. This clears up much of the difficulty in the reading of the ancient records, where iron always appears in a malleable form, the tools used by the workers in iron consisting inv
Cathay (North Dakota, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
be taken as representing the state of geographic knowledge out of Salamanca and the cloisters. Africa had been circummavigated by Vasco da Gama; Asia is driven over to the eastward as far as Marco Polo is deemed to have gone in his months of weary travel. So large a proportion of the circumference of the earth was held to be embraced by the circuit of Europe and Asia, that the latter about fills the western hemisphere, the goodliest island of Cipango (Japan) lying off the coast of the far Cathay. In the mid-Atlantic is the island of Antilia, a spot partly conjectural, and also the island of St. Brandan, which was purely imaginary. Thus was the globe depicted before the sailing of Columbus, and his projected voyage was not expected to be much greater than the length of the Mediterranean. He sailed and discovered what he considered to be the Island of Antilia (Cuba). An island under that name had appeared on the charts since 1425. Columbus was for discovering a western route to In
Quebec (Canada) (search for this): chapter 13
of roof with a 4 1/2-foot parapet. The walls are 5 1/2 feet thick; the lower story is for stores, magazine, and retreat; the second is a casemate with embrasures; the roof is armed en barbette with a traversing gun, under a bomb-proof. The towers were erected on the coasts of Kent within range of each other. The entrances are at a considerable hight above the ground, and the tower has a ditch and glacis. Two of these towers are on the plains of Abraham. as outworks of the citadel of Quebec. Mar′tin. A grinding-tool consisting of a brass plate with a flat stone facing. An opening through the plate and lining allows sand to pass through and insinuate itself between the martin and the stone which is being ground. A runner. Mar′tin-et′; Mart′net. (Nautical.) A small line on the leach of a sail, to assist in handling it in furling. Mar′tin-gale. 1. (Nautical.) a. A lower stay for the jib-boom or flying jib-boom. The martingale of the former passes fr
dary between the continents. Next is the map of the world according to Eratosthenes and Strabo. Eratosthenes (276-196 B. C.) of Alexandria was the discoverer of the obliquity of the ecliptic, and was the founder of geodesy. He determined the circumference of the earth by measuring a degree of the meridian. Measurements of an are of the meridian have been made by the Chaldeans, by Eratosthenes, by Al Maimon, by Pire, and more lately by the French, English, Germans, and others; in Peru, Lapland, British India, and elsewhere. (See armil ; armillary-sphere ; astronomical instruments ; odometer.) We regard Eratosthenes with profound respect as the author of the science of geography, and the name thereof. The extent of each zone he determined by the length of the solstitial day, and called them elimates. The map of the world by Hipparchus (150 B. C.) is founded on the discoveries of Eratosthenes, and is the first recorded attempt to assign geographical positions by longitudes and
Benton (Mississippi, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
used is to be worn on the left breast. When charged it is rotated for firing by bringing each cartridge in succession to an open notch in the periphery of the frame. — U. S. Ordnance Memoranda, No. 15, p. 339. Merrill's box is a slot in the top, back of the small of the stock, from which the cartridges are taken by hand and fed to the chamber. Hagner's magazine is a box large enough for three cartridges, open at one end, and situated under the barrel, forward of the trigger-guard. Benton's, Hare's, and Metcalfe's magazine-boxes are detachable blocks containing each a number of cartridges. The blocks fit in the cartridge-box, and when in use are attached to the side of a rifle, near the breech-block, by dovetail or pin fastening. Maga-zine′ fire-arm. One containing a supply of cartridges, which are automatically fed to the chamber at the rear end of the barrel. There are several types. 1. Those in which the magazine is a tube below the barrel, as in the Winchester,
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