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Syria (Syria) (search for this): chapter 15
ve is grown in Spain in greater perfection than in Italy, owing to some manorial rights or a system of farming the taxes, all the olives of a district are brought to one place to be ground and pressed; and as each heap has to wait its turn, the olives in many of the heaps become black and rancid. A friend of the missionary W. M. Thompson, who farmed the district of el Mughar, near the lake of Tiberias, states that a black color does not hurt the olives as they lie in the heap. The modern Syrian plan embraces two modes of grinding the fruit and expressing the oil : — 1. The m aserah, which is worked by hand and used for grinding the early fruit before the streams are raised by the winter rains which start the watermills. In the m aserah the fruit is ground by a revolving stone in a stone basin, much as in the ancient Phoenician method just described. It is pressed in a beam or screw press, the mass being packed into straw baskets, which are piled one above another in the press.
England (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 15
the liquid sinks from the upper chamber, the lid is lifted, and the cask removed. Barnum and McNoah's metallic barrel (Fig. 3395) is coated on both sides with lead, and the joints made by riveting and soldering. There are many patents for compositions, modes, and machinery for thus impregnating, and for coating barrels for this purpose. Oil-test. For ascertaining the degree of heat at which the hydrocarbon vapors of petroleum are liable to explode. That legally employed in Great Britain consists in heating the oil in a porcelain vessel surrounded by a hot-water bath. A wire is placed 1/4 inch above the rim of the vessel, and when a thermometer whose bulb is submerged 1 1/2 inches below the surface of the oil indicates the desired heat, say, 90°, a small flame is passed quickly along the wire over the surface of the oil; if no flash is produced, the heat is continued and the test applied at every 3° above this until the flashing-point is reached. The operation is then
North America (search for this): chapter 15
oma cacaoHot climatesThe cocoa-nibs of the shops. Used as a beverage. Afford an oil or butter which can be used for burning. CamelineCamelina sativaEurope, etcOil from the seeds. Used for burning in lamps. CandleberryMyrica ceriferaNorth and Central AmericaThe berries contain a wax-like matter, which is converted into candles, producing an aromatic odor as they burn. Myrica cordifoliaCape of G. Hope Candle-nutAleurites trilobaS. Sea IslandsSeeds contain oil Used for food and for burning RosemaryRosmarius officinalisEurope, etcTops of plant afford an oil. Used in perfumery, medicine, etc. Sandal-wood or santal-woodSantalumIndiaYields an essential oil heavier than water. Used in perfumery. Winter-greenGaultheria procumbens.North AmericaThe plant affords an essential oil. Used in medicine, perfumery, and for flavoring. The most ancient oil-mills are those used for mashing the olive. They were used in Palestine at a very early date. Although Solomon, A. D. 1015, supplie
Denmark (Denmark) (search for this): chapter 15
ate which credits the driver with eight kilometers (about five miles) an hour, or two francs, according to the Parisian tariff. Table of Lengths of Foreign Road Measures. Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. ArabiaMile2,146 AustriaMeile (post)8,297 BadenStuden4,860 BelgiumKilometre1,093.63 BelgiumMeile2,132 BengalCoss2,000 BirmahDain4,277 BohemiaLeague (16 to 1°)7,587 BrazilLeague (18 to 1°)6,750 BremenMeile6,865 BrunswickMeile11,816 CalcuttaCoss2,160 CeylonMile1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdenPost-meile7,432 EgyptFeddan1.47 EnglandMile1,760 FlandersMijle1,093.63 FlorenceMiglio1,809 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 Mi
Japan (Japan) (search for this): chapter 15
tadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 Mexico Hemp-seedCannabis sativaEurope, etcUsed for burning, paints, varnishes, and for soft soaps, etc. Insect wax(See Wax.) Japan wax(See Wax.) Java wax(See Wax.) LinseedLinum usitatissimumEurope, etcBoiled with litharge produces the boiled oil of pFraxinus sinensisChinaA kind of wax deposited by an insect, the coccus pe-la, on the leaves of this species of ash. Wax (Japan)Rhus succedaneaJapanA vegetable wax afforded by the fruit of the tree. Used in candle-making Wax (palm)Copernicia cerifJapanA vegetable wax afforded by the fruit of the tree. Used in candle-making Wax (palm)Copernicia ceriferaBrazilWax obtained from the surface of the young leaves of the plant. Ceroxylon andicolaAndesWax obtained by scraping the trunk of the tree. Used with tallow to make candles. Wheat-oil(See Fusel-oil.) essential oils. AniseedPimpinella a
Leghorn (Italy) (search for this): chapter 15
BrazilLeague (18 to 1°)6,750 BremenMeile6,865 BrunswickMeile11,816 CalcuttaCoss2,160 CeylonMile1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdenPost-meile7,432 EgyptFeddan1.47 EnglandMile1,760 FlandersMijle1,093.63 FlorenceMiglio1,809 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMile2,025 RussiaVerst1,166.7 RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,3<
Andes, Delaware (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
nd to adulterate other oils. Wax (bees)Beeswax, although not strictly a vegetable production, is primarily derived from the pollen of flowers Wax (insect)Fraxinus sinensisChinaA kind of wax deposited by an insect, the coccus pe-la, on the leaves of this species of ash. Wax (Japan)Rhus succedaneaJapanA vegetable wax afforded by the fruit of the tree. Used in candle-making Wax (palm)Copernicia ceriferaBrazilWax obtained from the surface of the young leaves of the plant. Ceroxylon andicolaAndesWax obtained by scraping the trunk of the tree. Used with tallow to make candles. Wheat-oil(See Fusel-oil.) essential oils. AniseedPimpinella anisumEurope, etcSeeds afford an oil used in medicine and flavoring spirits for liquors. BergamotCitrus aurantiumS. Europe, etcRind of fruit affords an oil. Much used in perfumery, essences, etc. CajeputMetaleuca cajeputiMoluccasA volatile oil which dissolves India-rubber. CamphorCamphora officinarumChina, etcA solid essential oil. Used in m
Calcutta (West Bengal, India) (search for this): chapter 15
the machine keeps the tell-tale hand moving at a rate which credits the driver with eight kilometers (about five miles) an hour, or two francs, according to the Parisian tariff. Table of Lengths of Foreign Road Measures. Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. ArabiaMile2,146 AustriaMeile (post)8,297 BadenStuden4,860 BelgiumKilometre1,093.63 BelgiumMeile2,132 BengalCoss2,000 BirmahDain4,277 BohemiaLeague (16 to 1°)7,587 BrazilLeague (18 to 1°)6,750 BremenMeile6,865 BrunswickMeile11,816 CalcuttaCoss2,160 CeylonMile1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdenPost-meile7,432 EgyptFeddan1.47 EnglandMile1,760 FlandersMijle1,093.63 FlorenceMiglio1,809 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna
Madrid (Spain) (search for this): chapter 15
id wood; likewise several moving figures, which beat time, etc. We are told that the Emperor Theophilus, 829-41, had two great gilded organs, embellished with precious stones and golden trees, on which a variety of little birds sat and sung, the wind being conveyed to them by concealed tubes. The Duke of Mantua had an organ in which the pipes and other parts were made of alabaster. A pair of organs at Venice were made all of glass, and of the eight in the convent of the Escurial, near Madrid, one is said to be made of solid silver. The devices required in order to make a pipe sound or speak are: the bellows, for supplying condensed air; a channel, for conducting it to the pipe; a valve or other contrivance, for admitting and cutting it off; and a lever, for opening and closing the valve. The pipes are of two descriptions: the mouth or flute pipe (technically called flue-pipe) and the reed-pipe, which are each farther divided into several varieties. Mouth-pipes, so cal
Indian Ocean (search for this): chapter 15
the bottom of the sea, and one cannot get at them by any other means, except by diving to the bottom. — ATHENAeUS; Epit., B. I. 22. He also quotes Homer as saying, — An active man is he, and dives with ease (Iliad, XVI. 745), in reference to a man who gathered them fast enough to keep several persons supplied. Epicharmus, in the Marriage of Hebe, says: — Bring oysters with closed shells, Which are very difficult to open, but very easy to eat. The pearl-oyster of the Indian Ocean is mentioned by Theophrastus and Athenaeus, who speak of it as a precious stone resembling a large fish's eye, and that expensive necklaces are made of them for the Persians, Medes, and all Asiatics. Theophrastus says: — They are engendered in the flesh of the oyster, just as measles are in pork. The oysters of Britain were highly esteemed by the epicures of the Roman Empire. Oys′ter-knife. A strongly stocked and thickbladed knife which is thrust between the shells of th
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