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vention, finance, peace. The effect upon commerce of the use of steam as a motive power can scarcely be realized, until the progress of its development is compared with the progress of commerce. Then it is seen that the marked advance in the interchange of commodities was simultaneous with the development of the steamship and railway, and that the growth of the one was coincident with that of the other. The application of steam to transportation of merchandise by rail began in England in 1825, and in the United States in 1830, the number of miles of railway in the world in 1830 being about 200. In that year, the world's commerce, according to the best estimates obtainable, was $1,981,000,000 as against $1,659,000,000 in 1820, an increase in the decade of barely 17 per cent., while in the preceding decades of the century the increase had been even less. By 1840, railways had increased to 5,420 miles, and commerce had increased to $2,789,000,000, an increase of 40 per cent. From 1
parts of the world, have greatly increased the volume of the circulating medium and encouraged the creation of a single and well-defined standard of value, so that the merchant may make his sales and purchases with an assurance that payments will be made in a measure of value acceptable to the whole world, and losses and uncertainty of traffic thus avoided. The supply of this precious metal has increased enormously during the century. Chevalier estimated that the amount of gold in Europe in 1492 was but $60,000,000. From that time to the beginning of the century, the average gold production was about $8,000,000 a year; from 1800 to 1850, about $15,000,000 a year; and, since that date, it has ranged steadily upward, until it has reached over $300,000,000 a year, thus multiplying many times the stock of the standard metal of the world. The result of this is that 95 per cent. of the commerce of the world is now carried on between nations having a fixed and wellregulated currency, with
sell in Europe may contract his goods before shipping, and those who would make purchases in the Orient or the tropics can give their orders to-day, with the confidence that the goods will start to-morrow and reach them at a fixed date in time for the markets at their most favorable season. The growth of the telegraph and ocean cable has, like that of the railway and steamship, being contemporaneous with the growth of commerce. The first telegraph for commercial purposes was constructed in 1844, and so quickly did its influence become apparent that several thousand miles were in existence by 1850, while by 1860 the total had reached nearly 100,000 miles, by 1870 280,000 miles, by 1880 440,000 miles, by 1890 768,000 miles, and by 1900 1,000,000 miles. Submarine cables, by which the international commerce is guided and multiplied, date from 1851, in which year 25 miles were put into operation across the English Channel. By 1860 the total length of successful lines was about 1,500 mil
8501,435,000,00081,400,0004,422,000363,928,000 18602,551,000,000142,300,0007,180,0001,333,981,000 18702,775,000,000213,400,00011,910,0001,263,015,000 18803,601,000,000340,000,00018,140,0001,150,814,000 18905,600,000,000466,000,00025,160,0001,060,052,000 18985,900,000,000610,000,00037,150,0001,950,000,000 (a)Malte-Brun's estimate for 1804.(e)Levasseur's estimate for 1878. (b)Based on Balbi's estimate for 1828.(f)Royal Geographical Society estimate. (c)Based on Michelet's estimate for 1845.(g)Mulhall's estimates, except 1830, 1890, and 1898. (d)Based on Behm-Wagner estimate for 1874.(h)Saetbeer's estimates prior to 1860. To discuss the part which the various nations have had in this commerce, the relations of imports to exports, or the classes of articles exchanged between the great sections of the globe, would carry this study beyond reasonable limits. In all of the above statements, the term commerce has covered both exports and imports, and has included the exchange of
commerce, combining imports and exports to obtain the total commerce, at $2.31 per capita in 1800, $2.34 in 1830, $3.76 in 1850, $6.01 in 1860, $8.14 in 1870, $10.26 in 1880, $11.84 in 1890, and $13.27 in 1899. What has caused this wonderful increlways had increased to 5,420 miles, and commerce had increased to $2,789,000,000, an increase of 40 per cent. From 1840 to 1850, railways increased to 23,960 miles, and commerce had increased to $4,049,000,000, a gain of 45 per cent. By 1860, the raiwas constructed in 1844, and so quickly did its influence become apparent that several thousand miles were in existence by 1850, while by 1860 the total had reached nearly 100,000 miles, by 1870 280,000 miles, by 1880 440,000 miles, by 1890 768,000 m000. From that time to the beginning of the century, the average gold production was about $8,000,000 a year; from 1800 to 1850, about $15,000,000 a year; and, since that date, it has ranged steadily upward, until it has reached over $300,000,000 a y
nited States exports of more than $20,000,000, chiefly in manufactured articles. From Africa the increase in imports was $6,000,000, principally in manufacturers' materials, of which raw cotton forms the most important item, while the exports increased meantime $17,000,000, chiefly in manufactures. The following tables show the imports and exports of the United States by grand divisions in the calendar years 1890 and 1900. In the figures showing the distribution by continents in 1900 the December distribution was estimated, though the grand total of imports and exports for 1900 is based upon the complete figures of the Bureau of Statistics: Exports. Continent.1890.1900. Europe$682,585,856 $1,111,456,000 North America 95,517,863 202,486,000 South America 34,722,122 41,384,000 Asia 22,854,028 60,598.000 Oceanica 17,375,745 39,956,000 Africa 4,446,934 22,170,000 Imports. Continent.1890.1900. Europe $474,656,257 $439,500,000 North America151,490,330 131,200,000 South A
e in the decade of barely 17 per cent., while in the preceding decades of the century the increase had been even less. By 1840, railways had increased to 5,420 miles, and commerce had increased to $2,789,000,000, an increase of 40 per cent. From 1841840 to 1850, railways increased to 23,960 miles, and commerce had increased to $4,049,000,000, a gain of 45 per cent. By 1860, the railways had increased to 67,350 miles and commerce to $7,246,000,000, an increase of 79 per cent. By 1870, the railroadsan in 1819, and the total steam tonnage afloat in 1820 is estimated at 20,000 tons, against 5,814,000 of sail tonnage. By 1840, steam tonnage had increased to 368,090, while sail has grown to 9,012,000; by 1860, steam had reached 1,710,000, while santury, we find that the carrying power of vessels on the ocean had increased from 4,026,000 tons in 1800, to 10,482,000 in 1840; 21,730,000 in 1860; 37,900,000 in 1880; 48,800,000 in 1890; and 63,225,000 in 1898-99, of which last enormous total but 1
year ending June 30, 1900. Imports and Exports.1900.Decrease (+)or Increase (–) Imports: Merchandports, which in 1890 were $823,397,762, were in 1900 $829,052,116, an increase of less than 1 per cell from $151,000,000 in 1890 to $131,000,000 in 1900, while the exports to North America increased ded from $101,000,000 in 1890 to $102,000,000 in 1900, while to South America the exports increased fsed from $69,000,000 in 1890 to $123,000,000 in 1900, while to Asia the exports in the same time inceased from $4,500,000 in 1890 to $22,000,000 in 1900. From Europe, to which the United States was aased from $54,000,000 in 1890 to $27,000,000 in 1900. To North America the exports increased in theough the grand total of imports and exports for 1900 is based upon the complete figures of the Burea80 440,000 miles, by 1890 768,000 miles, and by 1900 1,000,000 miles. Submarine cables, by which the In general, it may be said of our commerce of 1900, that the imports are about ten times as much a[11 more...]<
o obtain the total commerce, at $2.31 per capita in 1800, $2.34 in 1830, $3.76 in 1850, $6.01 in 1860, $8.14 in 1870, $10.26 in 1880, $11.84 in 1890, and $13.27 in 1899. What has caused this wonderful increase in the world's interchange of commodities, by which the commerce for each individual in the world is now practically sils on the ocean had increased from 4,026,000 tons in 1800, to 10,482,000 in 1840; 21,730,000 in 1860; 37,900,000 in 1880; 48,800,000 in 1890; and 63,225,000 in 1898-99, of which last enormous total but 11,450,000 was sailing tonnage. Not only has greater carrying power come on land and sea, but with it increased speed and safety.s, and in some years actually exceeded them, while now they only amount to about 2 per cent. of our total exports. Comparing the commerce in domestic goods during 1899 with that of 1800, it is found that the percentage of increase is very much greater than that shown by the world's total commerce. In general, it may be said of
Commerce of the United States. In submitting his report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, the chief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department called attention to four notable facts that characterized the foreign commerce of the country during the year— viz., (1) the total commerce surpassed by $317,729,250 that of any preceding year, and for the first time exceeded $2,000,000,000; (2) the exports exceeded those of any preceding year; (3) manufacturers' materials were m implements, $16,094,886; wood manufactures, $11,830,978; refined mineral oils, $67,740,106; chemicals, drugs, and dyes, $13,196,638; leather and leather goods, $27,288,808; cotton goods, Table showing foreign trade for fiscal year ending June 30, 1900. Imports and Exports.1900.Decrease (+)or Increase (–) Imports: Merchandise—Dollars. Dollars. Free367,130,226 + 66,850,416 Dutiable 482,584,444 + 85,715,765 ———————— Total849,714,670 +152,556,181 Per cent. dutiable56.
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