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penalties of the laws of England for such offence. Bayard was arrested on a charge of treason, tried, convicted, and received the horrid sentence then imposed by the English law upon traitors—to be hanged, quartered, etc. Bayard applied for a reprieve until his Majesty's pleasure should be known. It was granted, and in the mean time Cornbury arrived, when all was reversed. Bayard was released and reinstated. The democrats were placed under the lash of the aristocrats, which Bayard and Livingston used without mercy by the hand of the wretched ruler to whom they offered libations of flattery. The chiefjustice who tried Bayard, and the advocate who opposed him, were compelled to fly to England. From that time onward there was a continuous conflict by the democracy of New York with the aristocracy as represented by the royal governors and their official parasites. It fought bravely, and won many victories, the greatest of which was in a fierce battle for the freedom of the press, i
d, four were Dutch and four English. Of the nineteen delegates, ten were of Dutch and nine were of English nativity. This was the first really representative assembly in the great State of New York chosen by the people. The names of the delegates were as follows: From New Amsterdam, Van Hattem, Kregier, and Van de Grist; from Breucklen (Brooklyn), Lubbertsen, Van der Beeck, and Beeckman; from Flushing, Hicks and Flake; from Newtown, Coe and Hazard; from Heemstede (Hempstead), Washburn and Somers; from Amersfoort (Flatlands), Wolfertsen, Strycker, and Swartwout; from Midwont (Flatbush), Elbertsen and Spicer; and from Gravesend, Baxter and Hubbard. Baxter was at that time the English secretary of the colony, and he led the English delegates. The object of this convention was to form and adopt a remonstrance against the tyrannous rule of the governor. It was drawn by Baxter, signed by all the delegates present, and sent to the governor, with a demand that he should give a categoric
—republicanism and monarchy — Leislerians and Anti-Leislerians —to be distinctly drawn. During the exciting period of Leisler's rule, the aristocratic or royalist party were led by Nicholas Bayard (q. v.), a wealthy and influential citizen, who was warmly seconded by Robert Livingston (q. v.). These two men were chiefly instrumental in bringing Leisler to the scaffold and treating his family and friends in a shameful manner. This conduct was continued until the Earl of Bellomont succeeded Fletcher as governor, when the Anti-Leislerians were reduced to a minority, and kept quiet for a while. After the death of Bellomont (March 5, 1701), John Nanfan, his lieutenant, ruled for a while. Nanfan favored the democratic party. As soon as it was known that Lord Cornbury (q. v.), a thorough aristocrat and royalist, had been appointed governor, Bayard and his party heaped abuse not only upon the dead Bellomont, but upon Nanfan. The latter saw that Bayard was on the verge of a pit which he h<
hereto. These met in New Amsterdam on Dec. 10, 1653. Of the eight districts represented, four were Dutch and four English. Of the nineteen delegates, ten were of Dutch and nine were of English nativity. This was the first really representative assembly in the great State of New York chosen by the people. The names of the delegates were as follows: From New Amsterdam, Van Hattem, Kregier, and Van de Grist; from Breucklen (Brooklyn), Lubbertsen, Van der Beeck, and Beeckman; from Flushing, Hicks and Flake; from Newtown, Coe and Hazard; from Heemstede (Hempstead), Washburn and Somers; from Amersfoort (Flatlands), Wolfertsen, Strycker, and Swartwout; from Midwont (Flatbush), Elbertsen and Spicer; and from Gravesend, Baxter and Hubbard. Baxter was at that time the English secretary of the colony, and he led the English delegates. The object of this convention was to form and adopt a remonstrance against the tyrannous rule of the governor. It was drawn by Baxter, signed by all the d
d adopt a remonstrance against the tyrannous rule of the governor. It was drawn by Baxter, signed by all the delegates present, and sent to the governor, with a demand that he should give a categorical answer. In it the grievances of the people were stated under six heads. Stuyvesant met this severe document with his usual pluck. He denied the right of some of the delegates to seats in the convention. He denounced the whole thing as the wicked work of Englishmen, and doubted whether George Baxter knew what he was about. He wanted to know whether there was no one among the Dutch in New Netherland sagacious and expert enough to draw up a remonstrance to the Director-General and his council, and severely reprimanded the new city government of New Amsterdam (New York) for seizing this dangerous opportunity for conspiring with the English [with whom Holland was then at war], who were ever hatching mischief, but never performing their promises, and who might to-morrow ally themselves
e. They nourished the prolific seed of democracy, which burst into vigorous life in the time of Jacob Leisler (q. v.). Stuyvesant tried to stifle its growth. The more it was opposed, the more vigorous it grew. Late in the autumn of 1653 a conventh a demand that he should give a categorical answer. In it the grievances of the people were stated under six heads. Stuyvesant met this severe document with his usual pluck. He denied the right of some of the delegates to seats in the conventionelves with the North --meaning Sweden and Denmark. The convention was not to be intimidated by bluster. They informed Stuyvesant, by the mouth of Beeckman, that unless he answered their complaints, they would appeal to the States-General. At this eeckman to leave his presence. The plucky ambassador coolly folded his arms, and silently defied the magistrate. When Stuyvesant's anger had abated, he asked Beeckman's pardon for his rudeness. He was not so complaisant with the convention. He or
l citizen, who was warmly seconded by Robert Livingston (q. v.). These two men were chiefly instrumental in bringing Leisler to the scaffold and treating his family and friends in a shameful manner. This conduct was continued until the Earl of Bellomont succeeded Fletcher as governor, when the Anti-Leislerians were reduced to a minority, and kept quiet for a while. After the death of Bellomont (March 5, 1701), John Nanfan, his lieutenant, ruled for a while. Nanfan favored the democratic partBellomont (March 5, 1701), John Nanfan, his lieutenant, ruled for a while. Nanfan favored the democratic party. As soon as it was known that Lord Cornbury (q. v.), a thorough aristocrat and royalist, had been appointed governor, Bayard and his party heaped abuse not only upon the dead Bellomont, but upon Nanfan. The latter saw that Bayard was on the verge of a pit which he had digged himself, and he pushed him into it. Bayard had procured an act, in 1691, aimed at Leisler and his supporters, providing that any person who should in any manner endeavor to disturb the government of the colony should b
erdam on Dec. 10, 1653. Of the eight districts represented, four were Dutch and four English. Of the nineteen delegates, ten were of Dutch and nine were of English nativity. This was the first really representative assembly in the great State of New York chosen by the people. The names of the delegates were as follows: From New Amsterdam, Van Hattem, Kregier, and Van de Grist; from Breucklen (Brooklyn), Lubbertsen, Van der Beeck, and Beeckman; from Flushing, Hicks and Flake; from Newtown, Coe and Hazard; from Heemstede (Hempstead), Washburn and Somers; from Amersfoort (Flatlands), Wolfertsen, Strycker, and Swartwout; from Midwont (Flatbush), Elbertsen and Spicer; and from Gravesend, Baxter and Hubbard. Baxter was at that time the English secretary of the colony, and he led the English delegates. The object of this convention was to form and adopt a remonstrance against the tyrannous rule of the governor. It was drawn by Baxter, signed by all the delegates present, and sent to
the delegates to seats in the convention. He denounced the whole thing as the wicked work of Englishmen, and doubted whether George Baxter knew what he was about. He wanted to know whether there was no one among the Dutch in New Netherland sagacious and expert enough to draw up a remonstrance to the Director-General and his council, and severely reprimanded the new city government of New Amsterdam (New York) for seizing this dangerous opportunity for conspiring with the English [with whom Holland was then at war], who were ever hatching mischief, but never performing their promises, and who might to-morrow ally themselves with the North --meaning Sweden and Denmark. The convention was not to be intimidated by bluster. They informed Stuyvesant, by the mouth of Beeckman, that unless he answered their complaints, they would appeal to the States-General. At this the governor took fire, and, seizing his cane, ordered Beeckman to leave his presence. The plucky ambassador coolly folded
hese met in New Amsterdam on Dec. 10, 1653. Of the eight districts represented, four were Dutch and four English. Of the nineteen delegates, ten were of Dutch and nine were of English nativity. This was the first really representative assembly in the great State of New York chosen by the people. The names of the delegates were as follows: From New Amsterdam, Van Hattem, Kregier, and Van de Grist; from Breucklen (Brooklyn), Lubbertsen, Van der Beeck, and Beeckman; from Flushing, Hicks and Flake; from Newtown, Coe and Hazard; from Heemstede (Hempstead), Washburn and Somers; from Amersfoort (Flatlands), Wolfertsen, Strycker, and Swartwout; from Midwont (Flatbush), Elbertsen and Spicer; and from Gravesend, Baxter and Hubbard. Baxter was at that time the English secretary of the colony, and he led the English delegates. The object of this convention was to form and adopt a remonstrance against the tyrannous rule of the governor. It was drawn by Baxter, signed by all the delegates p
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