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Wolverhampton (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 19
nd-pipe for steam-pump. Stand-pipe. The combined engine power is equal to 4,000 horses: delivery, 17,000,000,000 gallons annually. The horse-power is in excess; a reserve being kept. 8,500,000 gallons are raised by each horsepower annually, to hights varying from 60 to 188 feet; mean hight, 100 feet. Daily supply, 90 gallons per house. The New River Company supplies daily 700,000 persons with 40 gallons of water per head, at an expenditure of 4 cents per 1,000 gallons. At Wolverhampton, England, water from a well 140 feet deep was pumped over a stand-pipe 180 feet in hight, making a lift of 320 feet. This was done to give the necessary pressure in the mains, there being no summit reservoir. At the Erie, Pa., Water Works is a stand-pipe 220 feet in hight, resting on a rock elevated 14 feet above the water, making a total elevation of 234 feet. It is 5 feet in diameter, and is made of boiler-iron, the uppermost sections being 3/16 inch, and the lowermost 7/16 inch thick.
Lombardy (Italy) (search for this): chapter 19
they were drowned. Sabots are cherished by the whole Gallic race, and might be used with advantage by other people for occasional protection on sloppy pavements and on wet ground, while about the duties of the kitchen, laundry, and kitchen-garden. Sabots in France are divided into the gros and the fins: the former being course and sold at 14 cents per pair; and the latter at 40 cents, trimming extra. The kinds of wood used, beginning with the commoner varieties, are willow, poplar (Lombardy), beech, birch, aspen, ash, hornbeam, walnut. The wood is cut when it attains a certain size, and is sold on the spot by auction. The sabotiers attend in person and work up their purchases on the spot, giving the crude form to the sabots, which are afterward seasoned, and are then finished, carved, and blacked in Paris or some other mercantile center. The seasoning of the wood takes about twelve months. Gros sabots are sometimes dried and smoked to expedite the seasoning, and are finis
New Brunswick (Canada) (search for this): chapter 19
iler. In August, 1807, Fulton's boat (the Clermont ) started from New York for Albany The Legislature of that State had promised to any persons who would accomplish the distance by a steam-vessel in 35 hours the exclusive use of the waters of the Hudson for steam-navigation. The Clermont performed the trip in 32 hours. Mr. Stevens built the steamboat Phoenix, but was precluded from using it on the Hudson by the monopoly of Fulton. It was then placed on the water between New York and New Brunswick, when Mr. Stevens conceived the project of sending it around to Philadelphia by sea, which he successfully carried out. In 1808 it left New York for Philadelphia, in charge of his son. Robert L. Stevens. On the passage a storm arose, but the Phoenix made a safe harbor at Barnegat whence it proceeded to Philadelphia, and plied for many years between Philadelphia and Trenton. This steamer was the first to navigate the ocean, and accomplished the distance between New York and Philadelp
Baltimore, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
lakes was, to a great extent, conducted by screw-vessels. Already, in 1843, the Ericsson line of screw-steamers was in full operation between Philadelphia and Baltimore, running through the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal. Rennie proposed to make the screw spiral instead of helical; the form being generated by winding an inclinbled the Cape of Good Hope, and on September 7, 1522, the San Vittoria anchored at St. Lucar, near Seville, Spain; the first circumnavigation of the earth. a, Baltimore, N. G. Lloyd's line. Length, 185 feet; beam, 29 feet; length to breadth, 6.38. b, Peruvian, Allan line. Length, 270 feet; beam, 38 feet; length to breadth, laimed in the patent of Baur. No 49,495, August 22, 1865. See also his subsequent patents, No. 99,624 of 1870, No. 123,445 of 1872. The chrome is mined near Baltimore, contains 60 per cent oxide of chromium, also protoxide of iron, magnesia, and alumina, but no silica. On account of its tensile strength it was adopted for t
Hamburg (Hamburg, Germany) (search for this): chapter 19
he lighting and police arrangements of Paris were improved; the project was that of the Abbe Laudati, and was legalized in 1662. In 1671 the lamps were ordered to be lighted from the 20th of October to the end of March, having previously been kept lighted only during the four winter months; at this time the lamps were kept burning on moonlight nights as well as others. Their number in 1771 was estimated at 6.232. Amsterdam had street lanterns in 1669; The Hague, 1678; Copenhagen, 1681; Hamburg, 1675; Berlin, 1682; Vienna, 1704; Birmingham, England, 1733. For lighting by gas, see gas. Street-lamp. In the example, the glass is in a single piece, flaring at top, and having an opening at the bottom to receive the burner. The cover, to which it is attached, is conical in shape, is supported by four rods affixed to the top of the lamp-post, and is capped by a perforated hood. James L. Ewin's street-lamp has a supply of naphtha or other oil sufficient to last for a week or
Sinai (Egypt) (search for this): chapter 19
tion. The shoes of the ancient Egyptians were made of papyrus, leather, or textile fabrics. The upper was sewed to the sole, but an examination of a number of shoes of that ancient people has failed to reveal a heel. The Chinese and the inhabitants of India have had shoes from time immemorial. Skins, silk, rushes, linen, wool, wood, bark, and metal have been used by these Orientals. The Homeric heroes are represented without shoes. Moses wore sandals or shoes in the wilderness of Sinai. The early Greeks and Romans used them but little; succeeding ages introduced foot coverings of various kinds: the sandal with latchet; the same with a toe-piece or cap; a leather moccasin, or soleless shoe; a shoe in which the toes are exposed (Fig. 4557, e); a shoe, as we understand it; slippers; boots; buskins, etc., etc. The material was of tanned or tawed skins. Homer, Ovid, and Pliny agree in celebrating the skill of Tychius, the Boeotian, in the art of shoemaking. The latter
London Bridge (North Dakota, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
to change a rotary to a reciprocating motion, the inverse of the Watt proposition, was not new at the date. A 4-throw crank was employed on each end of the wallower or lantern-wheel which was driven by the water-wheel under the north end of London Bridge, as described by Beighton, 1731. The water-wheel was first placed there by Morice in 1582, but the mode of driving the pump-piston from the rotary-shaft is not known to the writer. To make the rotary motion continuous, passing the dead pouried the iron till part was consumed by rust, and that the remainder made swords strong enough to cleave a shield or helmet, or cut through a bone. Some wrought bands that were recovered with the piles driven to support the abutments of old London Bridge were bought by a cutler, who became celebrated for the surpassing excellence of the blades forged from the old scrap-pile. Pliny gives a long description of iron and the modes of its manufacture. The varieties of steel in modern practic
Pennsylvania Canal (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
and is situate in the heart of a coal country. It is 108 miles in length, and its construction cost about $2,500,000. This line of navigation is formed by 34 dams thrown across the stream, with 29 locks, which overcome a fall of 610 feet. It is navigated by boats from 50 to 60 tons burden. Slack-water navigation also occurs at intervals on many of the great lines of canals. About 78 miles of the Rideau Canal, in Canada, are formed in this way, and it is met with on the Erie, Oswego, Pennsylvania, Lycoming, and Lehigh Canals. The same mode is adopted on the river Severn in England, the dams being made of masonry. Slade. The sole of a plow. Slag. 1. (Metallurgy.) Vitreous mineral matter removed in the reduction of metals. The scoria from a smelting-furnace. At some furnaces on the Continent of Europe the slag is sold. It is run directly into wagons, or prepared by granulation in water, and is used for making cement and artificial stone, and in the manufacture
Algiers (Algeria) (search for this): chapter 19
r being mixed with water. Ordinary concrete and Beton (which see) are of this class. Terra-cotta, employed for architectural ornaments, statuary, etc., is in the nature of a fine brick. Cement stones have been largely employed for constructions in the sea, especially for harbor dams, breakwaters, and quay walling. We may cite the moles of Dover and Alderney, in England, of Port Vendre, Cette, La Ciotat, Marseilles, and Cherbourg in France, Carthagena in Spain, Pola in the Adriatic, of Algiers and Port Said in Africa, and Cape Henlopen at the mouth of the Delaware. For the break water at Cherbourg artificial stone blocks of 712 cubic feet each were immersed The fortifications before Copenhagen are made of a concrete of broken stone and hydraulic mortar. The sluice of Francis Joseph on the Danube, in Hungary, is built entirely of concrete. This work forms a reservoir, the bottom and the sides of which consist of one piece. Its length is 360 feet, and width 30 feet. Its cons
Vienna (Wien, Austria) (search for this): chapter 19
son. (Shipbuilding.) A binding-piece above the deadwood in the stern, and practically forming an extension of the keelson, on which the stern-post is stepped. Ster′ro-met′al. An alloy invented by Baron Rosthorn of the Imperial Arsenal, Vienna, and used as a gun-metal. It has, — Copper55.04or57.63 Tin0.830.15 Zinc42.3640.22 Iron1.771.86 It differs from Keir's metal, English patent, December 10, 1779, mainly in having a small quantity of tin. Keir's metal is, — Copwinter months; at this time the lamps were kept burning on moonlight nights as well as others. Their number in 1771 was estimated at 6.232. Amsterdam had street lanterns in 1669; The Hague, 1678; Copenhagen, 1681; Hamburg, 1675; Berlin, 1682; Vienna, 1704; Birmingham, England, 1733. For lighting by gas, see gas. Street-lamp. In the example, the glass is in a single piece, flaring at top, and having an opening at the bottom to receive the burner. The cover, to which it is attache
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