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Breslau (Poland) (search for this): chapter 19
irteenth century, now in Paris. Saw-mills were erected by the Spaniards in the island of Madeira in 1420. Erected in Breslau, 1427; in Norway, 1520; in Rome, 1556. Saw-mills driven by water afterward became common in Europe. In the year 1555r; and the Lepchas loosened their pigtails, and combed their long hair over their eyes and faces. Cohn, an oculist of Breslau, has made an estimate of the number of workmen in metal who have been injured in the eye by minute pieces of metal. Amorgical.) a. An instrument to keep the mouth open. A mouth-speculum. b. An instrument invented by Professor Burns, of Breslau, to make critical examinations of the mouth and jaws. A platinum spiral wire inclosed in a boxwood cup, to prevent thoyed a forcing-pump for supplying it with air. See diving-bell. Submarine armor was successfully used by Klingert of Breslau, in 1798. His diving-dress consisted of a metallic cylinder with a hemispherical top for covering the head, a metallic
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
o other as profitable Uses. In Michigan and Wisconsin, Canada, Maine, and Pennsylvania, the lumber business is carried on upon a large scale. An instance may be gburgh line. Length, 340 feet; beam, 40 feet; length to breadth, 8.50. h, Pennsylvania, American S. S. Co. Length, 343 feet; beam, 43 feet; length to breadth, 7.91he country was constructed by the Schuylkill Navigation Company, in the State of Pennsylvania, and consisted in damming up the water of the river Schuylkill. It ext on distinctive paper, made by J. M. Wilcox, of Glen Mills, Delaware County, Pennsylvania. The essential feature of this paper is a localized fiber imbedded in the bndiana, in climbing the river hill; at Mauch Chunk and other steep places in Pennsylvania; in the mines where a gradual slope forms the upcast shaft; on the Morris and Essex Canal, N. J.; and elsewhere. The Portage Railway of Pennsylvania had formerly ten inclined planes overcoming an elevation of about 1,400 feet, going west. T
Solferino (Italy) (search for this): chapter 19
parties have been made by means of balloons on several occasions, the balloon in each case being what is called captive, that is, being held by a rope to limit the ascension and prevent its escape. Railway-signal. The first occasion was at the battle of Fleurus, in 1794, when the French used it to ascertain the position and evolutions of the Austrians. It was fired at by the Austrians, but allowed to ascend out of range. A captive balloon was again made use of by the French at Solferino, 1859. A third use of balloons in this species of service was with the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsular campaign, and perhaps in other fields of action. The search for the lamented Sir John Franklin gave rise to many ingenious schemes for signaling the party and giving them notice of succor. Mr. Wallace's plan was to make a survey with the assistance of a captive balloon, affording a means of distributing notices which might reach the party. The plan understood to have bee
Martinique (search for this): chapter 19
eys and carrying a series of blades; this conveys the sugar to another incline, where it is acted on by a second fan. It is now entirely crystallized, and is removed by hand into a receiver. When desired to produce molasses, a small proportion may be obtained by making the incline of the troughs steeper and dispensing with the use of the fans. Other plans of treating the cane have been suggested, and in some cases adopted. The following may be mentioned: — De Manoel and Brafen, of Martinique, obtained U. S. patent, February 22, 1848, for a process of drying and pulverizing sugarcane, and then washing the saccharine matters therefrom to be manufactured into sugar by evaporation in the ordinary way. The cane is chopped into small pieces by a cane-cutter, is dried in a kiln and ground in a mill. The meal is then placed in tubs, which are tightly closed, and water passed in succession through them till the sugar is all extracted. The filter and boiling-pan conclude the operation
yriads of topaz-light, and jacinth-work Of subtlest jewelry. No wonder Sir Bedivere coveted the sword of this old British chief and hid it in the many-knotted water-flags, as related in the chronicle of the old harper who is always a little below concert pitch. The famous sword of Orlando was said to have been the work of the fairies, and its name Durandal (dur en diable, as hard as the devil ) is indicative of its origin, and accounts for the fact (?) that he was able to cleave the Pyrenees with it. It was also called Durandarte, Durindana, Durlindana. Curtana was another famous sword of Orlando. Its name was given to the first royal sword of England from a very early period; in the wardrobe accounts for 1483 it is so designated. Morglay (glaive de la mort) was the sword of Sir Bevis of Southampton. Tizona was the famous sword of the Cid. Andrea Ferrara, so long believed to be the name of a celebrated Italian sword-maker, must be given up Andrea is only an occasio
East India (search for this): chapter 19
. A chain or buoy is attached to it. The shafts of the cast-iron screw-piles used in the piers of bridges in the East Indies were cylinders 1 inch thick, 30 inches in external diameter, and in lengths of 9 feet. They were connected by internalll, for grinding spices. A pepper-mill of boxwood is mentioned by Petronius. It was used for black pepper from the East Indies, — a favorite ingredient. See sausage. Spic′u-la-for′ceps. (Surgical.) A dentist's long-nosed forceps for re was only used for weft, the warp of all English-made cotton goods being of linen, although imported calicoes from the East Indies were of cotton, warp and weft. The next improvement, in order of time, was Arkwright's spinning-frame, which made was only fit for weft, all the English-made cotton goods, at this time, having a linen warp. The cotton goods of the East Indies, imported under the name of calicoes, were all of cotton, both warp and weft, but the machinery at hand in England wa
ever, found in Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, and also on the Continent of Europe. Thosu extending from Newfoundland to the coast of Ireland, having a nearly uniform depth of somewhat ovrd of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland quarters the ensigns of England, Scotland, and Ireland. It lost the horse of Hanover when William IV. died; the horse has of late been quarterge in Scottish waters, and none in England or Ireland In 1820, England had 17; Scotland, 14; Irelante printing (see pages 618, 619). The Bank of Ireland adopted the Perkins method. Nowhere has thment of the Lough Foyle base in the survey of Ireland, nearly 8 miles in length, Colonel Colby empls constructed on the Great Western Railway of Ireland, to cross the entrance to Lough Atalia. It hm a Saxon tomb, England; b, bronze sword from Ireland; c, from Sweden; e, Switzerland: f, Neufchateparison are added: — l m, spear-heads from Ireland n o, Irish bronze daggers. p q, bronze
Mount Vernon, Knox County, Ohio (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
rm, near Yorktown, Va. He had been wounded at Blenheim, where he served with Marlborough. He was the first to cross the Blue Ridge and see the Shenandoah Valley. He was appointed commander of the expedition to Carthagena, but died at Annapolis, Md., June, 1740, as the troops were about to embark. He was buried in the mausoleum from which the Temple Farm derived its name. In this expedition the elder brother of George Washington served, and on his return named his estate on the Potomac Mount Vernon, after the English admiral. The blast-furnace for reducing iron from its ores is shown at Fig. 5221, A. It consists of an interior lining of fire-bricks a a, forming a doubly conical chamber, surrounded by a packing of broken scoriae or refractory sand, and incased within a construction of masonry b b, from the upper part of which the charge of fuel and ore is delivered through a suitable opening into the furnace. Smelting-furnace. The portion from c to d is termed the shaft;
Saugus (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
lson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838-39, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown in July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, England, in 1652, by order of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, coined silver shillings, sixpences, and threepences, known as the pine-tree coinage, from the device of a pine-tree on one side. Early in the eighteenth century, a smeltingfur-nace was erected in Virginia by Sir Alexander Spottswood, governor of Virginia, who lived at the Temple Farm, near Yorktow
Caen (France) (search for this): chapter 19
Sand1.392-1.800 Sandstone2.08-2.52 Sapphire3.991-4.283 Sardonyx2.594-2.628 Serpentine2.429-2.999 Shale2.600 Slate2.672-2.955 Spar, calc.2.715 Spar, feld2.693-2.704 Spar, fluor3.138-3.183 Spar, other varieties2.43-3.873 Steatite2.61 Stone, building varieties1.386-2.945 Stone, building, common2.520 Stone, building, Bath, England1.961 Stone, building, Bristol, England2.510 Stone, building, Norfolk, England (Parliament House)2.304 Stone, building, Portland2.368 Stone, building, Caen, Fr2.076 Stone, building, Notre Dame Cathedral2.378 Stone, building, Breakneck, N. Y.2.704 Stone, building, Kip's Bay, N. Y.2.759 Stone, building, Staten Island, N. Y.2.976 Stone, building, Sullivan Co., N. Y.2.688 Tale2.08-2.90 Trap2.72 Topaz3.155-4.061 Woods, Dry. Alder.800 Apple.793 Ash.800 Ash, American.514–.736 Bass.482–.502 Bay, Spanish.822 Beech.852 Beech, American.672–.735 Birch.567 Box.900-1.030 Brazil-wood1.031 Campeachy (logwood).913 Cedar, American.560
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