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New Jersey (New Jersey, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
ith bitumen. Obsidian was used in Mexico. Saws and knives of obsidian have been disinterred in the alluvial ground of New Jersey beneath the recent gravel. They are held to prove the existence of extensive coastwise trade, as no obsidian is found neral Sir Samuel Bentham, toward the close of the last century, and have been employed on the Morris and Essex Canal in New Jersey. See Fig. 2665, page 1176. Sectional boat. Sectional boats for canal or navigation subject to occasional interrurangement of detail can the Singer Sewing-Machine Company make 6,000 machines per week in their works at Elizabethport, New Jersey? Cylinder sewing-machine. The data for showing the rate of increase of the sales of sewing-machines since the yea00 sets of these machines have been made and sent to the Pasha of Egypt, yet there are but few in this country, —one in New Jersey, and some in Louisiana and in the West. They are in use in Cuba and South America. The Magnolia sugar plantation, i
Blossom Rock (California, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
the debris into deep water. Subma-rine′ boat. A vessel constructed to navigate beneath the surface of the water. Drebbel of Holland constructed for James I. a vessel which was manned by 12 rowers, and was tried on the Thames. The effete air was again rendered respirable by a liquor whose composition was kept secret by the inventor. The Marquis of Worcester, in his Century of inventions, refers to a contrivance of somewhat similar import. Submarine excavation and blasting of Blossom rock, Harbor of San Francisco. Robert Fulton published his work on this subject in New York, 1810. His experiments were made at Brest in 1801. On July 3, in that year, he embarked with three companions on board his plunging-boat in the harbor of Brest, and descended in it to the depth of 25 feet, which was about as deep as the strength of his machine would bear. He remained below in darkness one hour. He afterward tried candles, but objected to them as destroying the vitality of the a
Capitol (Utah, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
triumphs of the first Napoleon. on which the same style of scaffolding was used. The tendency in the United States is to the use of the derrickcrane, whose simplicity and efficiency leave little to be desired. The extension of the Treasury Building in Washington, under the conduct of A. B. Mullet, was made by colossal stones; its monolithic character is said to be second only to the Church of St. Isaac's at St Petersburg, Russia. The derrick-crane was used on this building, and on the Capitol Extension also. Fig. 4648 represents a hanging scaffold contrived by Perronet for the workmen employed in dressing and pointing the masonry of the arches of the bridge at Orleans. It was suspended from a frame which straddled the parapet, and was rolled from place to place as required. The platform could be raised and lowered and held at any desired hight. Hanging scaffold. Curious turning scaffolds have been used in domes. See Cresy. From the numerous varieties, three rep
Brussels (Belgium) (search for this): chapter 19
lyde, an average speed of 15 knots per hour. The Collins line was started soon after the Cunard, but was not so successful, a number of the vessels being lost. The rate of speed has been gradually increased, the figures being approximately as follows:— Savannah 181926 days. Sirius 183819 days. Great Western 183818 days. Pacific and Baltic 18519 days, 19 hours. Arabia and Persia 1851 to 18619 days, 12 hours. Scotia and City of Paris 1863 to 18668 days, 12 hours. City of Brussels and others1866 to 18737 days, 20 hours. The following are some of the fastest trips on record: The Daniel drew ran from Yonkers to New York, a distance of 14 1/2 miles, in 35′ 45″, or at a rate of over 25 miles per hour. The Chauncey Vibbard ran from New York to Albany, 160 miles, in 6 hours and 40′. In deep water she averaged 24 miles an hour. The Mahroussee, built in England by Samuda, designed by Lang: oscillating engines by Penn, — obtained a speed on her trial trip of 21 1
Quito (Ecuador) (search for this): chapter 19
om the fibrous roots of the American agave. They are anchored by fastening on the shore to the trunks of trees, and the track is formed of bamboos laid transversely. They are subject to dangerous lateral swaying, and Humboldt advises to cross them on a run, keeping the body well forward, and in single file. He says that a guide and traveler walking at different rates, especially if the latter stop and grasp the balustrade-ropes, will throw the bridge into convulsions. The road between Quito and Lima crosses a deep ravine by a rope bridge, which affords passage for loaded mules. These bridges are said to last from 20 to 25 years, and break before they are renewed in that rather supine country. A bridge was erected about 40 years since at Aligpore, in Hindostan, 130 feet in length and 5 in width, the cables being of cane, with iron fastenings. The canes are obtained on the northeast frontier, and are from 100 to 225 feet in length, and from 1 to nearly 2 inches in diameter
Cunard (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
ional Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, 674 feet long, 77 feet broad, 22,500 tons; the City of Pekin, belong ing to the Pacific Mail Steam-ship Company, 6,000 tons, 423 feet long, 48 feet broad; the Liguria, of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, 4,820 tons, 460 feet long, 45 feet broad; the Britannic, of the White Star Line, 4,700 tons, 455 feet long, 45 feet broad; the City of Richmond, of the Inman Line, 4,600 tons, 453 1/2 feet long, 43 feet broad; and the Bothnia, of the Cunard Line, 4,500 tons, 425 feet long, 42 1/2 feet broad. See ship, Fig. 5001, page 2154. Taking the largest of these, we may give the details. particulars of the great Eastern steam-ship. Material. Iron. Builders. J. Scott Russell & Co. Gross tonnage22,500 tons. Nominal horse-power, total2,600 H. P. Length between perpendiculars680 feet. Length on deck691 feet. Breadth, extreme83 feet. Depth of side58 feet. Estimated draft, light20 feet. Estimated draft, laden30 feet. Screw e
Venloo (Netherlands) (search for this): chapter 19
. Shelf-bracket. Shelf-brack′et. A device for supporting a shelf. In the example, the inner end of the horizontal bar of the bracket has a hookcatch, and the lower end of the brace has a notch, which respectively take over or bear against the bars of the vertical series which are placed in the back of the case. Shell. 1. (Ordnance.) A hollow projectile containing a bursting-charge, which is exploded by a time or percussion fuse. (See cannon; projectile; fuse.) Invented at Venlo, 1495; used by the Turks at the siege of Rhodes, 1522. Bomb-vessels were constructed in France, 1681. Shells are usually made of cast-iron, and for mortars and smooth-bore cannon are spherical; but for rifled guns, they are, with the exception of Whitworth's and a few others, cylindrical and have a conoidal point. They are caused to take the grooves in a rifled gun, to receive a rotary motion, by means of a disk or ring, the sabot, which is expanded in act of firing, or by studs on th
Marseilles (France) (search for this): chapter 19
careous substance, as Roman, or, still better, Portland cement, which hardens after being mixed with water. Ordinary concrete and Beton (which see) are of this class. Terra-cotta, employed for architectural ornaments, statuary, etc., is in the nature of a fine brick. Cement stones have been largely employed for constructions in the sea, especially for harbor dams, breakwaters, and quay walling. We may cite the moles of Dover and Alderney, in England, of Port Vendre, Cette, La Ciotat, Marseilles, and Cherbourg in France, Carthagena in Spain, Pola in the Adriatic, of Algiers and Port Said in Africa, and Cape Henlopen at the mouth of the Delaware. For the break water at Cherbourg artificial stone blocks of 712 cubic feet each were immersed The fortifications before Copenhagen are made of a concrete of broken stone and hydraulic mortar. The sluice of Francis Joseph on the Danube, in Hungary, is built entirely of concrete. This work forms a reservoir, the bottom and the sides of
Seville (Spain) (search for this): chapter 19
d Magellan in discovering the Pacific Ocean, into which he sailed from the Straits of Magellan, November 28, 1520, and which he named the Pacific Ocean. He sailed across the Pacific, reached the Ladrones, was killed by mutineers; the vessel anchored at Tidore, November 8, 1521, having been at sea 27 months. Proportions of Ocean steamers. Sebastian de Elcano, Magellan's lieutenant, doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and on September 7, 1522, the San Vittoria anchored at St. Lucar, near Seville, Spain; the first circumnavigation of the earth. a, Baltimore, N. G. Lloyd's line. Length, 185 feet; beam, 29 feet; length to breadth, 6.38. b, Peruvian, Allan line. Length, 270 feet; beam, 38 feet; length to breadth, 7.11. c, Moravian, Allan line. Length, 290 feet; beam, 39 feet; length to breadth, 7.44. d, Leipzig, N. G. Lloyd's line. Length, 290 feet; beam, 39 feet; length to breadth, 7.44. e, Minnesota, Williams & Guion line. Length, 332 feet; beam, 42 feet; length to br
Miami Valley (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
the ancient Scythians were in the habit of communicating information by means of fires and smoke, and the same practice prevailed within comparatively recent times among the Scottish Highlanders and the inhabitants of the borders. From existing indications, fire telegraphy must have been extensively employed by the ancient mound-building race which preceded the Indians who inhabited North America when it first became known to Europeans. Throughout the West, notably in the Scioto and Miami Valleys, mounds of earth thrown up in elevated positions are found which were evidently designed for this purpose. The permanent nature of the fortifications and the character of the entombed remains suggest that the region was at one time inhabited by a nation or nations more numerous and possessing a higher degree of political organization than their successors. Fremont speaks of the signal-fires lighted by the Digger Indians and other aborigines inhabiting the margin of the great basin in
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