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le, Chap XIX.} without molestation, enjoyed their wild independence. It was the liberty of freemen in the woods. North Carolina, like ancient Rome, was famed as the sanctuary of runaways; seventy years after Spotswood, Ms. its origin, Spotswood describes it as a country where there's scarce any form of government; and it long continued to be said, with but slight exaggeration, that in Carolina, every one did what was right in Bland, Ms. his own eyes, paying tribute neither to God nor to Caesar. In such a country, which was almost an utter stranger to any public worship, among a people made up of Presbyterians and Independents, of Lutherans and Quakers, of men who drew their politics, their faith, and their law from the light of nature,—where, ac- Spotswood, Ms. cording to the royalists, the majority were Quakers, atheists, deists, and other evil-disposed persons,—the pious zeal or the bigotry of the proprietaries, selecting Robert Daniel, the deputy-governor, as the fit instru
ss to King William, denounced the influence of Jesuits, Chap XIX.} the prevalence of Popish idolatry, the connivance by the government at murders of Protestants, and the danger from plots with the French and Indians. The privy council, after a debate on the address, advised the forfeiture of the charter by a process of law; but King William, heedless of the remonstrances of the proprietary, who could be convicted of no crime 1691. but his creed, and impatient of judicial forms, by his June 1. own power constituted Maryland a royal government. Chalmers's Opinions, 29. The arbitrary act was sanctioned by a legal opinion 1692 from Lord Holt. In 1692, Sir Lionel Copley arrived with a royal commission, dissolved the convention, assumed the government, and convened an assembly. Its first act recognized William and Mary; its second established the Church of England as the religion of the state, to be supported by general taxation. Thus were the barons of Baltimore superseded for a
yet uninfected by superstition,—was torn from her children, and sent to jail. Parris had had a rival in George April 22. Burroughs, who, having formerly preached in Salem village, had had friends there desirous of his settlement. He, too, a skeptic in witchcraft, was accused May 8 and committed. Thus far, there had been no success in obtaining confessions, though earnestly solicited. It had been hinted, also, that confessing was the avenue to safety. At last, Deliverance Hobbs owned May 11. every thing that was asked of her, and was left unharmed. The gallows was to be set up, not for those who professed themselves witches, but for those who rebuked the delusion. Simon Bradstreet, the governor of the people's choice, deemed the evidence insufficient ground of guilt. On Saturday, the 14th of May, the new char- 1692 May 14. ter and the royal governor arrived in Boston. On the next Monday, the charter was published, and the 16. parishioner of Cotton Mather, with the roya
t of the Oct. proprietary, established a purely democratic government. The governor was but chairman of the council The council, the assembly, each was chosen by the people. The time of election, the time of assembling, the period of office, were placed beyond the power of the executive. The judiciary depended on the legislature. The people constituted themselves the fountain of honor and of power. When the assembly Proud, App. IV. next came together, Markham could say to them, 1697. May 12. You are met, not by virtue of any writ of mine, but of a law made by yourselves. The people ruled, Chap. XIX.} and, after years of strife, all went happily. Nothing was wanting but concert with the proprietary. Before the close of the century, William Penn was 1699 Nov. 30. once more within his colony. The commonwealth, which had been as an infant, nestling under his wing, had ripened into self-reliance. Passing over all intermediate changes, the proprietary acknowledged the prese
ts. The responsibility of the tragedy, far from attaching to the people of the colony, rests with the very few, hardly five or six, in whose hands the transition state of the government left, for a season, unlimited influence. Into the interior of the colony the delusion did not spread Chap XIX.} at all. The house of representatives, which assembled in 1692. June 8 to July 2. June, was busy with its griefs at the abridgment of the old colonial liberties. Increase Mather, the agent, June 9. June 24. was heard in his own defence; and, at last, Bond, the speaker, in the name of the house, tardily and languidly thanked him for his faithful and unwearied exertions. No recompense was voted. I seek not yours, but you, said Increase Mather; I am willing Some Few Remarks, 1702, p. 20. to wait for recompense in another world; and the general court, after prolonging the validity of the old laws, adjourned to October. July 2. But Phipps and his council had not looked to the gener
April 1st (search for this): chapter 1
a bright example of the integrity of virtue. The path of preferment had opened to him in England, but he chose rather the internal peace that springs from mental felicity. This Quaker preacher, the oracle of the patriot rustics on the Delaware, was now, by free suffrage, constituted president of the council. But the lower counties were jealous of the superior weight of Pennsylvania; disputes respecting appointments to Nov. 21. office grew up; the council divided; protests ensued; 1691 April 1. the members from the territories withdrew, and would not be reconciled; so that, with the reluctant consent of William Penn, who, though oppressed with persecutions and losses, never distrusted the people of his province, and always endured hardships as though they were, in the end, every way for good, the lower counties were constituted a separate government under Markham. Thus did the commonwealth of Delaware begin an independent existence. It was the act of its own citizens. Uncert
hinder the execution. Cotton Mather, on horseback among the crowd, addressed the people, cavilling at the ordination of Burroughs, as though he had been no true minister; insisting on his guilt, and Chap XIX.} hinting that the devil could sometimes assume the appearance of an angel of light: and the hanging 1692 proceeded. Meantime, the confessions of the witches began to be directed against the Anabaptists. Mary Osgood was dipped by the devil. The court still had work to do. On the ninth, six women were condemned; and more convictions followed. Giles Cory, the octogenarian, seeing that all were convicted, refused to plead, and was condemned to be pressed to death. The horrid sentence, a barbarous usage of English law, never again followed in the colonies, was executed forthwith. On the twenty-second of September, eight persons were led to the gallows. Of these, Samuel Wardwell had confessed, and was safe; but, from shame and penitence, he retracted his confession, and,
nicious notions, fatal to the 1703 royal prerogative, were improving daily; and, though Quarry Virginia protested against the charge of republicanism, as an unfounded reproach, yet colonial opinion, the offspring of free inquiry, which seclusion awakened, the woods sheltered, and the self — will of slaveholders fortified, was more than a counterpoise to the prerogative of the British crown. In former ages, no colony had ever enjoyed a happier freedom. From the days of the insurrection of Bacon, for a period of three quarters of a century, Virginia possessed uninterrupted peace. On its own soil, the strife with the Indians was ended; the French hesitated to invade the western frontier, on which they lowered: if sometimes alarm was spread by privateers upon the coast, a naval foe 1709 was not attracted to a region which had neither town 1710 nor magazines, where there was nothing to destroy but a field of tobacco, nothing to plunder but the frugal stores of scattered plantations.
April 26th (search for this): chapter 1
the devices of an apostate to deceive have but an accidental and transient interest: the unchanged Quaker, disowned by those who had cherished and advanced him, was soon left without a faction, and, tired of his posi- Chap XIX.} tion, made a true exposition of the strife by accepting an Episcopal benefice. The disturbance by Keith, creating questions as to the administration of justice, confirmed the disposition 1692 Oct. 21. of the English government to subject Pennsylvania to 1693 April 26 a royal commission; and, in April, 1693, Benjamin Fletcher, assuming power as governor for William and Mary, once more united Delaware to Pennsylvania. If no open opposition was made, yet some, who held commissions from the proprietor, withdrew at the publishing of their majesties' commission, and others Minutes, i. 360. refused to act under that power. When the house of representatives assembled, resist- May 15. ance was developed. It was the object of Fletcher to gain supplies; the
February 1st (search for this): chapter 1
. 30 Possession of his majesty's fort is what I demand, replied Ingoldsby, and issued a proclamation requiring submission. Thus the aristocratic party obtained as a leader one who held a commission from the new sovereign. Leisler, conforming to the original agreement Jan. 31 made with his fellow-insurgents, replied, that Ingoldsby had produced no order from the king, or from Sloughter, who, it was known, had received a commission as governor, and, promising him aid as a military officer, Feb. 1. refused to surrender the fort. The troops, as they landed, were received with all courtesy and accommodation; yet passions ran high, and a shot even was fired at them. The outrage was severely reproved by Leisler, who, amidst proclamations and counter- March 10. proclamations, promised obedience to Sloughter on his arrival. On the evening on which the profligate, needy, and March 19. narrow-minded adventurer, who held the royal commission, arrived in New York, Leisler sent messengers
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