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His offence was so clear that it would have justified the promptest action; but, to prevent all possibility of complaint from any quarter, he was, on the twenty-ninth, brought before a numerous and very able board of 29. officers. On his own confession and without the examination of a witness, the board, on which sat Greene, second only to Washington in the service; St. Clair, afterwards president of congress; Lafayette, of the French army; Steuben, from the staff of Frederic the Second; Parsons, Clinton, Glover, Knox, Huntingdon, and others, all well known for their uprightness,—made their unanimous report that Major Andre, adjutant-general of the British army, ought to be considered as a spy from the enemy and to suffer death. Throughout the inquiry Andre was penetrated with the liberality of the members of the court, who showed him every mark of indulgence, and required him to answer no interrogatory which could even embarrass his feelings. Hamilton, i. 178. He acknowledged
Eliza Schuyler (search for this): chapter 19
f Joshua Hett Smith, edited by Henry B. Dawson, New York, 1866; and especially Hamilton's Account of Andreas Affair in Works, i. 172-182. This last is particularly valuable, as Hamilton had the best opportunities to be well informed; and in his narrative, if there are any traces of partiality, it is towards Andre that he leaned. The reminiscences of men who wrote in later days are so mixed up with errors of memory and fable that they offer no sure foothold. The letter of Hamilton to Miss Schuyler, as repeatedly printed with the date of 2 Oct., contains interpolations and omissions. I took a copy of it from the original. It has no date: since it enclosed his account of Arnold's affair, sent in compliance with a promise, it must have been written many days later than 2 Oct. It begins as follows: No. 11. Since my last to you, I have received your letters Nos. 3 and 4. The others are yet on the way. Though it is too late to have the advantage of novelty, to comply with my promise
divisions under Robertson, Tryon, and Stachenberg, with an advanced guard under General Matthews. Of artillery he took eight pieces. The army of Washington was encamped at Morristown. On the east of the Passaic, the Jersey brigade under General Maxwell was stationed at Connecticut Farms, and three hundred of the Jersey militia occupied Elizabethtown. On the sixth of June, the Brit- June 6. ish landed at Elizabethtown Point, but very slowly, from a scarcity of boats. The brigadier who cohe house when it was set on fire. The presbyterian meeting-house and the houses and barns of the village were burned down. In the winter the presbyterian church at Newark had in like manner been burned to the ground. From Connecticut Farms, Maxwell, with the remnant of a brigade, retreated to strong ground near Springfield, where he awaited and repelled repeated attacks made by Colonel Wurmb with a Hessian regiment. Thrice did the Americans charge with fixed bayonets; and they retired onl
so clear that it would have justified the promptest action; but, to prevent all possibility of complaint from any quarter, he was, on the twenty-ninth, brought before a numerous and very able board of 29. officers. On his own confession and without the examination of a witness, the board, on which sat Greene, second only to Washington in the service; St. Clair, afterwards president of congress; Lafayette, of the French army; Steuben, from the staff of Frederic the Second; Parsons, Clinton, Glover, Knox, Huntingdon, and others, all well known for their uprightness,—made their unanimous report that Major Andre, adjutant-general of the British army, ought to be considered as a spy from the enemy and to suffer death. Throughout the inquiry Andre was penetrated with the liberality of the members of the court, who showed him every mark of indulgence, and required him to answer no interrogatory which could even embarrass his feelings. Hamilton, i. 178. He acknowledged their generosity i
Arthur Lee (search for this): chapter 19
s retreat by a feint, and to give it the air of a military manoeuvre. Troops sent up the Hudson river as if to take the Americans in the rear induced Washington to move his camp to Rockaway bridge, confiding the post at Short Hills to two brigades under the command of Greene. Early on the twenty-third, the British Chap. XVIII.} 1780. June 23. advanced in two compact divisions from Elizabethtown Point to Springfield. The column on the right had to ford the river before they could drive Major Lee from one of the bridges over the Passaic. At the other, Colonel Angel with his regiment held the left column in check for about forty minutes. Greene prepared for action; but the British army, though it was drawn up and began a heavy cannonade, had no design to engage; and at four in the afternoon, after burning the houses in Springfield, it began its return. All the way back to Elizabethtown, it was annoyed by an incessant fire from American skirmishers and militia. Its total loss is n
s of supplies, longed to return to their old form of government; and English generals reported so great disaffection among the starved and half-clothed American officers and men, that one-half of them would desert to the English and the other half disperse. The moment seemed opportune for setting up the royal standard in New Jersey. Strengthening the post at Kingsbridge, and leaving only three regiments in New York, Knyphausen formed nineteen regiments into three divisions under Robertson, Tryon, and Stachenberg, with an advanced guard under General Matthews. Of artillery he took eight pieces. The army of Washington was encamped at Morristown. On the east of the Passaic, the Jersey brigade under General Maxwell was stationed at Connecticut Farms, and three hundred of the Jersey militia occupied Elizabethtown. On the sixth of June, the Brit- June 6. ish landed at Elizabethtown Point, but very slowly, from a scarcity of boats. The brigadier who commanded the vanguard was early
hot her fatally through the breast. Scarcely was time allowed to remove the children and the corpse from the house when it was set on fire. The presbyterian meeting-house and the houses and barns of the village were burned down. In the winter the presbyterian church at Newark had in like manner been burned to the ground. From Connecticut Farms, Maxwell, with the remnant of a brigade, retreated to strong ground near Springfield, where he awaited and repelled repeated attacks made by Colonel Wurmb with a Hessian regiment. Thrice did the Americans charge with fixed bayonets; and they retired only on the arrival of a British brigade, the Hessian yagers alone having lost more than fifty killed or wounded. Instead of men eager to return to their old allegiance, the British encountered a people risking all to preserve their independence; suffered losses all the day from determined troops; and at five in the afternoon found that Washington, on hearing that they were out in force, had
nd a lieutenant. From Elizabethtown Point the fruitless expedition crossed to Staten Island by a bridge of boats, which at midnight was taken away. Clinton was never again to have so good an opportunity for offensive operations as that which he had now rejected. On the return of d'estaing from America, he urged the French ministry to send twelve thousand men to the United States, as the best way of pursuing the war actively; and Lafayette had of his own motion given the like advice to Vergennes, with whom he had formed relations of friendship. The cabinet adopted the measure in its principle, but vacillated as to the number of the French contingent. For the command Count de Rochambeau was selected, not by court favor, but from the consideration in which he was held by the troops. Goltz to Frederic, 3 March, 1780. On the tenth of July, Admiral de Ternay with a squadron of ten Chap. XVIII.} 1780. July 10. ships of war, three of them ships of the line, convoyed the detachment
David Williams (search for this): chapter 19
ed from New York and had formed a little corps of partisans to annoy roving parties, taking provisions to New York, or otherwise doing service to the British. On that morning, after setting a reserve of four to keep watch in the rear, he and David Williams of Tarrytown and Isaac van Wart of Greenburg seated themselves in the thicket by the wayside, just above Tarrytown, and whiled away the time by playing cards. At an hour before noon, Andre was just rising the hill out of Sleepy Hollow, withig, you will not be offended; we do not mean to take anything from you. There are many bad people going along the road; perhaps you may be one of them; and he asked if he had any letters about him. Andre answered: No. Testimony of Paulding and Williams in Smith's trial, 53 and 57. I They took him into the bushes to search for papers, and at last discovered three parcels under each stocking. Among these were a plan of the fortifications of West Point; a memorial from the engineer on the attack
duce into high rank in the British army, and receive at his council table, a man who had shown himself so sordid that British officers of honor hated to serve under him, or with him, or over him. Bankrupt and escaping from his creditors, Arnold preferred claims for indemnity, and received between six and seven thousand pounds. Moreover he had the effrontery to make addresses to the American people respecting their alliance with France; to write insolent letters to Washington; to invite all Americans to desert the colors of their country like himself; to advise the breaking up of the American army by wholesale bribery. Nay, he even turned against his patron as wanting activity, assuring Germain that the American posts in the Highlands might be carried in a few days by a regular attack. No one knew better than Clinton that Andre was punished justly; yet in his private journal he aimed a stab at the fair fame of his signally humane adversary, whom he had been able to overcome neither i
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