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Robert F. Stockton (search for this): entry mexico-war-with
ourney of 900 miles over the great plains and among mountain ranges, he arrived at Santa Fe, Aug. 18, having met with no resistance. Appointing Charles Brent governor, he marched towards California, and was soon met by an express from Commodore Robert F. Stockton (q. v.), and Lieut.-Col. John C. Fremont (q. v.), informing him that the conquest of California had been achieved. Fremont and a party of explorers, sixty in number, joined by American settlers in the vicinity of San Francisco, had california declared themselves independent, and put Fremont at the head of affairs. On the 7th Commodore Sloat, with a squadron, bombarded and captured Monterey, on the coast; on the 9th Commodore Montgomery took possession of San Francisco. Commodore Stockton and Colonel Fremont took possession of Los Angeles on Aug. 17, and there they were joined by Kearny, who had sent the main body of his troops back to Santa Fe. Fremont went to Monterey, and there assumed the office of governor, and proclaim
o Americans which had been appropriated by the Mexicans amounted to more than $6,000,000. The claim for this amount was unsatisfied when the annexation of Texas took place in 1845. Being fully aware of the hostile feelings of the Mexicans, President Polk ordered (July, 1845) Gen. Zachary Taylor, then in command of the United States troops in the Southwest, to go to Texas and take a position as near the Rio Grande as prudence would allow. This force, about 1,500 strong, was called the Army ofresident of the Mexican Congress assumed provisional authority, and, on Feb. 2, 1848, that body concluded a treaty of peace with the United States commissioners at Guadalupe-Hidalgo. It was ratified by both governments, and, on July 4, 1848, President Polk proclaimed it. It stipulated the evacuation of Mexico by the American troops within three months; the payment of $3,000,000 in hand, and $12,000,000 in four annual instalments, by the United States to Mexico, for New Mexico and California, wh
rying on the war. The Secretary of War and General Scott planned a magnificent campaign. On May 23 all northern Mexico was now complete, and General Scott was on his march for the capital. He had endered with the castle of San Juan de Ulloa. Scott took possession of the city two days afterward pass at the foot of the Eastern Cordilleras. Scott had followed Twiggs with the rest of his army,e army rested until August. Being reinforced, Scott then pushed on towards the capital. From thatthe quiet valley of Mexico, centuries before. Scott now beheld that Battle of Churubusco. spacentered the city of Mexico in triumph, but General Scott preferred to bear the olive-branch rather s of the city. When the trick was discovered, Scott declared the armistice at an end, and advancedion from the municipal authorities waited upon Scott, begging him to spare the town and treat for pcountries have never since been broken. General Scott's entry into the City of Mexico. For do[1 more...]
at Saltillo, and thence returned to New Orleans, having made a perilous march from the Mississippi of about 5,000 miles. The conquest of all northern Mexico was now complete, and General Scott was on his march for the capital. He had landed at Vera Cruz, March 9, with an army of 13,000 men. It had been borne thither by a powerful squadron, commanded by Commodore Conner. He invested the city of Vera Cruz (q. v.) on the 13th, and on the 27th it was surrendered with the castle of San Juan de Ulloa. Scott took possession of the city two days afterwards, and, on April 8, the advance of his army, under General Twiggs, began its march for the capital, by way of Jalapa. Santa Ana had advanced, with 12,000 men, to meet the invaders, and had taken post at Cerro Gordo, a difficult mountain pass at the foot of the Eastern Cordilleras. Scott had followed Twiggs with the rest of his army, and, on April 18, defeated the Mexicans at that strong pass, and, pushing forward, entered Jalapa on th
rs. The United States government remonstrated in vain until 1831, when a treaty was made and promises of redress were given. These promises were never fulfilled. Robberies continued; and, in 1840, the aggregate value of property belonging to Americans which had been appropriated by the Mexicans amounted to more than $6,000,000. The claim for this amount was unsatisfied when the annexation of Texas took place in 1845. Being fully aware of the hostile feelings of the Mexicans, President Poleace, was present. The treacherous Santa Ana had made this only a pretext to gain time to strengthen the defences of the city. When the trick was discovered, Scott declared the armistice at an end, and advanced upon the city. Less than 4,000 Americans attacked Santa Ana with 14,000 Mexicans, Sept. 8, at Molino del Rey (the King's Mill), near Chapultepec. The combatants fought desperately and suffered dreadfully. The Mexicans left almost 1,000 dead on the field; the Americans lost 800. The
rom Santa Ana to ask for an armistice, preparatory to negotiations for peace. It was granted. Nicholas P. Trist (q. v.), appointed by the United States government to treat for peace, was present. The treacherous Santa Ana had made this only a pretext to gain time to strengthen the defences of the city. When the trick was discovered, Scott declared the armistice at an end, and advanced upon the city. Less than 4,000 Americans attacked Santa Ana with 14,000 Mexicans, Sept. 8, at Molino del Rey (the King's Mill), near Chapultepec. The combatants fought desperately and suffered dreadfully. The Mexicans left almost 1,000 dead on the field; the Americans lost 800. The lofty battlemented hill of Chapultepec was doomed. It was the last place to be defended outside of the city. It was attacked by mortar and cannon shells and round-shot, Sept. 12, and the assault continued until the next day, when the American flag waved in triumph over its shattered castle. The Mexicans fled into th
t, 28 miles from Matamoras, Taylor was warned by the Mexicans that he was upon foreign soil. He left his stores at Point Isabel, under a guard of 450 men, and with the remainder of his army advanced to the bank of the Rio Grande, where he established a camp and began the erection of a fort, which he named Fort Brown, in honor of Major Brown, in command there. The Mexicans were so eager for war that, because President Herrera was anxious for peace with the United States, they elected General Paredes to succeed him. The latter sent General Ampudia, with a large force, to drive the Americans beyond the Nueces. This officer demanded of General Taylor, April 12, the withdrawal of his troops within twenty-four hours. Taylor refused, and continued to strengthen Fort Brown. Ampudia hesitated, when General Arista was put in his place as commander-in-chief of the Northern Division of the Army of Mexico. He was strongly reinforced, and the position of the Army of Occupation became critica
the Mexican authorities out of that region of country. On July 5 the Americans in California declared themselves independent, and put Fremont at the head of affairs. On the 7th Commodore Sloat, with a squadron, bombarded and captured Monterey, on the coast; on the 9th Commodore Montgomery took possession of San Francisco. Commodore Stockton and Colonel Fremont took possession of Los Angeles on Aug. 17, and there they were joined by Kearny, who had sent the main body of his troops back to Santa Fe. Fremont went to Monterey, and there assumed the office of governor, and proclaimed, Feb. 8, 1847, the annexation of California to the United States. Meanwhile, Colonel Doniphan, detached by Kearny, with 1,000 Missouri volunteers, marched towards Chihuahua to join General Wool. In two engagements with Mexicans he was victorious, and entered the capital of Chihuahua in triumph, March 2, and took possession of the province. After resting six weeks, he joined Wool at Saltillo, and thenc
uz (q. v.) on the 13th, and on the 27th it was surrendered with the castle of San Juan de Ulloa. Scott took possession of the city two days afterwards, and, on April 8, the advance of his army, under General Twiggs, began its march for the capital, by way of Jalapa. Santa Ana had advanced, with 12,000 men, to meet the invaders, and had taken post at Cerro Gordo, a difficult mountain pass at the foot of the Eastern Cordilleras. Scott had followed Twiggs with the rest of his army, and, on April 18, defeated the Mexicans at that strong pass, and, pushing forward, entered Jalapa on the 19th. On the 22d the American flag was unfurled over the Castle of Perote, on the summit of the Eastern Cordilleras, 50 miles from Jalapa. This was considered the strongest fortress in Mexico, excepting Vera Cruz. It was surrendered without resistance, and with it fifty-four pieces of cannon, some mortars, and a large amount of munitions of war. Onward the victorious army marched, and entered the f
eclared war. General Taylor crossed the Rio Grande, drove the Mexican troops from Matamoras, took possession of the town (May 18), and remained there until August, when he received reinforcements and orders from his government. Then, with more than 6,000 troops, he moved on Monterey, defended by General Ampudia, with more than 9,000 troops. It was a very strongly built town, at the foot of the great Sierra Madre. A siege commenced Sept. 21 and ended with the capture of the place on the 24th. General Wool had been directed to muster and prepare for service the volunteers gathered at Bexar, in Texas, and by the middle of July 12,000 of them had been mustered into the service. Of these, 9,000 were sent to reinforce Taylor. Wool went up the Rio Grande with about 3,000 troops, crossed the river at Presidio, penetrated Mexico, and, in the last of October, reached Monclova, 70 miles northwest of Monterey. He pushed on to Coahuila, where he obtained ample supplies for his own and Ta
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