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Stourbridge (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 12
t its midlength, divided into two cylinders, each of whose pistons, coupled directly to the crankpins, propels one of the four driving-wheels, and is simultaneously driven outward and inward. The crank-axles are at right angles with each other, so that each wheel is driven alternately. The cylinders are carried on a frame supported by the journals of the driving-wheels, so as not to be affected by the motion of the springs. The first locomotive run on rails outside of England was the Stourbridge lion, made by Stephen- son and brought from England for the Delaware and Hudson Canal and Railroad Company by Horatio Allen. This was in August, 1829. It was soon found that English locomotives, adapted for gentle curves, were ill suited for the exigencies of American railroads, where curves of as small a radius as 200 feet were sometimes employed. Mr. Peter Cooper, since so well and widely known, devised an engine which solved the difficulty. This was in 1829. The second locomo
Lisle, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
a cask or tank. A part of the gager's equipment. Liq′uor-pump. A portable pump for emptying casks, etc. See burr-pump. Liquor-thief. Liq′uor-thief. A tube which is let down through the bung-hole of a cask and then closed, so as to withdraw liquid therefrom. It is usually closed at top by the finger, but, in the illustration, the tube is closed by a plug. A sampling-tube. A velinche. Lisle-lace. A light, fine, transparent, white-thread, hand-made lace, so called from Lisle in France. It has a diamond-shaped mesh, formed by 2 threads plaited to a perpendicular line. Also known as clear-foundation. Lis′sens. (Rope-making.) The ultimate strands of a rope. List. 1. To chop a block or stave to an approximate shape; e. g. the balk or codling from which staves are to be rived is chopped to give a taper towards each end, before being cleft into staves by the frow and mallet. 2. (Carpentry.) a. The upper rail of a railing. b. A narrow strip fro
Quebec (Canada) (search for this): chapter 12
ision for avoiding the danger. Professor Arago classed several well-known sites according to the frequency of their storms, from the best information he could obtain. His list begins as follows: — Days of Thunder per Year. 1. Calcutta averages60 2. Patna (India) supposed to average53 3. Rio Janeiro averages50.6 4. Maryland (U. S.) supposed to average41 5. Martinique averages39 6. Abyssinia supposed to average38 7. Guadaloupe averages37 8. Viviers (France) averages24.7 9. Quebec averages23.3 10. Buenos Ayres averages22.5 11. Denainvilliers (France) averages20.6 The lowest average he gives is that of Cairo in Egypt, three days of thunder per annum. That of Paris and most of the European cities is about fifteen days. He estimates the days of thunder at New York to be about the same. Lightning rods, points, and Attachements. Fig. 2954 exhibits some of the numerous variety of rods for which patents have been secured in the United States. a has a serie
Maidstone (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 12
the exact date being undeterminable. We read of a German paper-mill at Nuremberg in 1390, one in England in 1343, in France, 1314, Italy, 1367. Linen paper, however, is yet preserved, containing documents of much older date. John Tate had a mill at Stevenage, England, in 1496, but the manufacture was much increased by Spielman in 1588. This person was a German jeweler, and established a paper-mill at Deptford during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Whatman's mill was established at Maidstone in 1770. The name is yet a famous brand. Linen-Prover. Lin′en-prov′er. A small microscope for counting the threads in linen fabrics. Its base has a square opening, which exposes a certain area of linen, and the glass above enables the number of threads to be counted. Some linen-provers are provided with four perforations, which are respectively, — 1/4 of 1 inch.1/200 of 37 inches. 1/200 of 40 inches.1/200 of 34 inches. See reed. Line-of-bat′tle ship. In Engla
Winchester, Va. (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
archaic, — So flashed and fell the brand Excalibur: But ere he dipt the surface, rose an arm Clothed in white samite, mystic, wonderful, And caught him by the hilt. The arts of dressing flax and wool were known in Britain previous to the conquest by Caesar, who states that the art of weaving was not known by the islanders. However this may be, an imperial manufactory of woolen and linen cloth for the use of the Roman army in Britain was established at Venta Bulgarum, since called Winchester. In Bishop Aldhelm's book, A. D. 680, in an essay on character, occurs a simile from the art of figure-weaving, in which he refers to a web woven by shuttles, filled with threads of purple and many other colors, flying from side to side, and forming a variety of figures and images. A famous specimen of embroidery of this character is preserved in the Cathedral of Bayeaux. It is a piece of linen about 19 inches in width and 67 yards in length, containing the history of the conquest of En
Northumberland, Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
er sep′a-rat-ing. Pattinson's method (English) of separating lead from silver is an economical substitute for cupellation. It is founded upon the property which pure lead has of crystalizing out of a solution of silver in lead. The argentiferous lead being fused is allowed to cool slowly, solid crystals of nearly pure lead are first formed, and are separated by an iron strainer from time to time, the melted remainder becoming still richer in silver. At Beaumont's works, Allenheads, Northumberland, the process is conducted in hemispherical, cast-iron pans, each holding about 3 tons of metal and heated by a fire beneath. The process is several times repeated, and the remaining metal is treated by cupellation. Argentiferous lead ores containing only 3 ounces of silver to the ton can be profitably worked for the silver by this means, while 20 ounces of silver to the ton scarcely paid when treated by the process of cupellation. See also cupellation; Pattinson's pots; lead-bath.
Jamaica (Jamaica) (search for this): chapter 12
Iron lighthouse Bermuda. The first screw-pile lighthouse actually erected prior to February, 1841, was at Port Fleetwood, near Lancaster, England. The screws which entered the bed of the river supported piles having screws at their upper ends, to which the timber columns supporting the frame of the superstructure were secured. These were united together by diagonal braces extending from the foot of one to the top of another. The first cast-iron lighthouse was put up at Point Morant, Jamaica, in 1842. The tower is formed of 9 tiers of plates, 10 feet high and 3/4 inch thick, united to each other by bolts and flanges on the inside. The plates of each tier have a common radius. It was filled in with masonry and concrete to the hight of 27 feet, and rested on a granite foundation. Its total hight was 96 feet, the upper and lower diameters being respectively 18 feet 6 inches and 11 feet. Fig. 2950 is a cast-iron lighthouse on a plan similar to the foregoing, subsequently e
England (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 12
rge diameter or shallow vessels; such are Bengal — lights, bluelights, etc. Light-ship. A vessel moored in the vicinity of a dangerous shoal or headland, and carrying aloft a warning light. The first light-vessel moored on the coast of Great Britain was that at the Nore in 1734. There were, in 1850, 26 floating lights on the coast of England. Stevenson states that the annual expense of maintaining a floating light, including the wages and victualing of the crew, who are eleven in numth acidulated gum-water in the usual way, and then printed. All transferring is done in this manner, save that the ink differs according to the nature of the work. Autographic transfers, of a very superior character, are quite common in Great Britain. Much of the map-work, ornamental designs, and lettering is done on transfer-paper by persons who make this branch of the art a specialty. Transferring from stone to stone constitutes at the present day one of the most important and diffi
Poland (Poland) (search for this): chapter 12
nt, shark, and rhinoceros skins also find their way to the tan-vat and a market. 1. Morocco leather is made from goat and kid skins, a peculiar grain being given to the surface. 2. Chamois, shammy, shamoy, or shamois leather was originally prepared from the skin of the chamois, but the skins of other goats, and even of sheep, are now dressed in the soft manner, and furnish skins for polishing, for gloves, and other purposes. 3. Buff-leather is so named from the buffe or wild bull of Poland and Hungary. It was used for armor, and tanned soft and white. It is yet used for cartridge-boxes and saber-belts in Europe. 4. Whang is tough leather made from skins of calves, dogs, ground-hogs, etc. It is used for bagstrings, whip-crackers, belt-lacing, and other occasional purposes. 5. Russet is leather finished except the coloring and polishing. In this condition tanned hides are stored, so as to be completed in any desired manner as the demand may suggest. 6. Roan; a leathe
Beaumont (Texas, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
rranged as to prevent the passage of the bolt except when certain letters on a series of exterior rings are brought into line with each other so as to form a particular word or combination on which the lock has been set. It is mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's play of The Noble gentleman, 1615. A cap-case for your linen and your plate, With a strange lock that opens with A. M. E. N. Regnier, about the middle of the seventeenth century, made improvements in the letter-lock, and in the Memorabilia of Vanhagen von Euse, written about 1650, to Regnier, Director of the Musee d'artilleric at Paris. Regnier's locks were much esteemed, and the courier's dispatchboxes were fastened with them. They are, however, alluded to in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Noble gentleman, printed in 1615. See letter-lock, p. 1292. Carew, in some verses written five years later, has this reference:— As doeth a lock that goes With letters; for, till every one be known, The lock's as fast as
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