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Parrott (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
in security for the gunners while loading, is by elevating the breech and depressing the muzzle, until the piece stands at an angle of 30°, or thereabouts. The charge is then inserted through a hole in the deck, if on shipboard, or from below the top of the parapet, if mounted in a fortification en barbette. For heavy guns the rammer is worked by steam-power. This plan of loading was tried on the Naugatuck, a small iron-clad presented by Mr. Stevens to the United States government. The Parrott gun mounted on this vessel burst while she was engaged with the Confederate forts on James River. The disaster was supposed by some to be the result of the manner of loading, as affording the shot a chance to slip forward after being driven home. Eads's system of working barbette-guns consists in removing the piece bodily below the parapet while loading, and only elevating it to position at the moment of firing. Fig. 3409 shows a carriage for operating a gun in this manner. The reco
Russia (Russia) (search for this): chapter 15
rwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMile2,025 RussiaVerst1,166.7 RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,5RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,522 SwedenMile11,660 SwitzerlandMeile8,548 TurkeyBerri1,828 TuscanyMiglio1,809 VeniceMiglio1,900 O-don′ta-gra. A form of dental forceps. O-don′to-graph. (Gearing.) An instrument for marking or laying off the teeth of gear-wheels; invented by Professor Willis. It consists of a graduated card or thin board, havined in perfumery and by watchmakers on account of its not readily freezing. BirchBetula albaEuropeBark affords an oil by distillation. Used in the preparation of Russia leather. Brazil-nutBertholletia excelsaBrazilUsed for burning in lamps. ButtersTerm applied to the semi-solid greasy substances that exude from trees, as shea-b<
Ox (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
stall where the neck is confined, straps to hold the animal suspended if he prove sullen and attempt to lie down, and posts and bars to which the feet are lashed for shoeing. See a, Fig. 3456. Ox-eye. (Building.) An oval dormer-window. Ox′i-diz-ing-fur′nace. (Metallurgy.) A furnace for treating ores or metallic substances, in which the material is exposed to an excess of air, the oxygen of which unites with the metal, forming an oxide. With ores, it may be said to be roasting equal in brilliancy to ten argand-lamps of ordinary dimensions. See also calcium-light; Drummond-light; oxyhydrogen light. Ox-y-ge-na′tor. A contrivance for throwing a stream of oxygen into the flame of a lamp. Oxycalcium-light. Ox′y-gengas Appara′tus. Oxygen gas was first discovered by Dr. Priestly August 1, 1774. Scheele and Lavoisier appear to have made the discovery independently very shortly afterward. Dr. Priestly first obtained the gas by heating red prec
Dundee (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 15
-cel′lar. An oil-reservoir in the bottom of a journal-box. Oil-cloth. A tarpaulin. Painted canvas for floor-covering. The latter description is prepared from cloth especially woven for the purpose, frequently of great width, and covered on each side by a peculiar series of processes, with paint. Figures or patterns in oil-colors are afterward printed on one side by means of wooden blocks. See floor-cloth. Floor oil-cloth is manufactured from jute, made principally at Dundee, Scotland. This is woven into widths of frequently from 18 to 24 feet, in looms at which two men, one on each side, are employed in throwing the shuttle. The length of the warp often exceeds 100 yards. The pieces are cut to the desired size, and these smaller pieces are stretched upon upright wooden frames, each of which has a series of scaffolds, reached by a ladder at one end of the frame. When the canvas is perfectly stretched, a weak solution of size is laid on with a brush, and while ye
Aix-la-Chapelle (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) (search for this): chapter 15
said to have been applied to religious services in churches in 657, and first used in the Western churches in 658 by Pope Vitalianus; though they were, according to Julianus, a Spanish bishop, commonly used in Spain 200 years previous to this date. In 757, the Emperor Constantine IV. presented an organ to King Pepin of France; and one, the work of a Saracen artist, was presented to his son Charlemagne by Haroun al Raschid; and, in 812, Louis le Debonnair built one on the Greek model at Aquisgrana, the modern Aix-la-Chapelle. Several German organs were placed in Italian churches by John VIII., 872-882. About 951, the abbey of Malmesbury and the cathedral of Winchester in England were provided with organs. At this time and for two centuries later, the compass was small, usually from 9 to 11 notes, the brass pipes harsh in tone and the machinery clumsy; the keys being 4 or 5 inches broad, and struck by the fist. Gerbert of Auvergne, in his school at Rheims, had an organ play
France (France) (search for this): chapter 15
or casual hire, to determine the distance. Fernel, physician to Catharine de Medici, Queen of France, measured with an instrument of this kind, in 1550, a degree of the meridian between Paris and Anybody can. Since the work of the French Academicians, measurements have been taken in India, France, England, Hanover, Lithmania, and Sweden. One curious discovery resulted, as stated by Sir JohnnPost-meile7,432 EgyptFeddan1.47 EnglandMile1,760 FlandersMijle1,093.63 FlorenceMiglio1,809 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°pa guineensisW. Africa, etcSeeds afford oil used by the natives for burning and anointing. In S France made into soap. CocoaCocos nuciferaHot climatesThe oil of the cocoa-nut is the chief material fevious to this date. In 757, the Emperor Constantine IV. presented an organ to King Pepin of France; and one, the work of a Saracen artist, was presented to his son Charlemagne by Haroun al Raschi
Sweden (Sweden) (search for this): chapter 15
of an idea will do, if anybody can. Since the work of the French Academicians, measurements have been taken in India, France, England, Hanover, Lithmania, and Sweden. One curious discovery resulted, as stated by Sir John Herschel: — The earth is not exactly an ellipsoid of revolution. The equator itself is slightly elliptt1,166.7 RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,522 SwedenMile11,660 SwitzerlandMeile8,548 TurkeyBerri1,828 TuscanyMiglio1,809 VeniceMiglio1,900 O-don′ta-gra. A form of dental forceps. O-don′to-graph. (ection, and is called exosmose. The result is a blending and ultimate uniformity of quality. Os′mund Furnace. (Metallurgy.) A furnace formerly employed in Sweden and still employed to some extent in Finland for reducing bog-iron ore. This ore, consisting essentially of hydrated sesquioxide of iron, is extracted from t
Hamburg (Hamburg, Germany) (search for this): chapter 15
iumKilometre1,093.63 BelgiumMeile2,132 BengalCoss2,000 BirmahDain4,277 BohemiaLeague (16 to 1°)7,587 BrazilLeague (18 to 1°)6,750 BremenMeile6,865 BrunswickMeile11,816 CalcuttaCoss2,160 CeylonMile1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdenPost-meile7,432 EgyptFeddan1.47 EnglandMile1,760 FlandersMijle1,093.63 FlorenceMiglio1,809 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMil
Winchester, Va. (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
and, in 812, Louis le Debonnair built one on the Greek model at Aquisgrana, the modern Aix-la-Chapelle. Several German organs were placed in Italian churches by John VIII., 872-882. About 951, the abbey of Malmesbury and the cathedral of Winchester in England were provided with organs. At this time and for two centuries later, the compass was small, usually from 9 to 11 notes, the brass pipes harsh in tone and the machinery clumsy; the keys being 4 or 5 inches broad, and struck by the fian played by steam. He was afterward made Pope by the Emperor Otho III., assuming the name of Sylvester II. He and his patron were poisoned by Italian intriguers about 1002. Gerbert introduced the Arabic numerals into Europe. The organ of Winchester, probably placed there by St. Dunstan, had 26 pairs of bellows, 400 pipes, and required 70 men to work it. The key-board is distinctly described at the close of the eleventh century. At this time a number of small bellows, 20 or more, were
Soho (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 15
angement of two achromatic compound lenses, separated by an interval. Or-tho-pae′dic Ap-pa-ra′tus. (Surgical.) A device to correct the deformities of children, such as curved spine, club-foot, etc. See club-foot apparatus. Os′cil-lat-ing—cyl′in-der Steam—en′gine. (Steam.) A simple form of engine, in which the cylinder rocks on trunnions and the piston-rod connects directly to the crank. It was invented by James Watt, and was brought into use by Maudslay. Watt's model, made at Soho in 1763, was exhibited at the London Exhibition of 1851. Witty of Hull patented the oscillating cylinder in England in 1813. English patent, June 5. Goldsworth Gurney was in some way associated with the improvement of it, and has been credited with the invention. It was introduced by those two famous makers of marine and river engines, Maudslay and Field and Penn and Sons. This engine has a cylinder mounted on gudgeons or trunnions, generally near the middle of its len
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