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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), America, discoverers of. (search)
but discovered a beautiful land covered with exquisite flowers, and named it Florida. In 1520 Lucas Vasquez de Allyou, a wealthy Spaniard, who owned mines in Santo Domingo, voyaged northwesterly from that island, and discovered the coast of South Carolina. Meanwhile the Spaniards had been pushing discoveries westward from Hispaniola, or Santo Domingo. Ojeda also discovered Central America. In 1513 Vasco Nuñez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean from a mountain summit on the Isthmus of Darien. Francisco Fernandez de Cordova discovered Mexico in 1517. Pamphila de Narvaez and Ferdinand de Soto traversed the country bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, the former in 1528, and the latter in 1539-41. In the latter year De Soto discovered and crossed the Mississippi, and penetrated the country beyond. This was the last attempt of the Spaniards to make discoveries in North America before the English appeared upon the same field. It is claimed for Giovanni da Verrazano, a Florentine na
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Balboa, Vasco Nunez de, 1475- (search)
de los Caballeros. Spain. in 1475; went to Santo Domingo in 1501; and thence to the Isthmus of Darien in 1510. Pope Alexander VI. (q. v.) gave to the Spanish crown, as God's vicegerent on the earthame from his cask. Enciso, angered by the deception, threatened him, but became reconciled. At Darien, where the seat of government was to be established, Nuņez, taking advantage of the discontent oainst Nuņez, and the Spanish government sent out Davila, with a fleet and troops, as governor of Darien. Meanwhile Nuņez had become a great discoverer. The cacique, or Indian ruler, of a neighborirried off the cacique and his whole family and others, and, with considerable booty, returned to Darien. Caveta and Nuņez soon became friends. The former gave his young and beautiful daughter to theDavila came, Nuņez was falsely accused of traitorous intentions by his jealous successor and rival, and he was beheaded at Acla, near Darien, in 1517. So perished the discoverer of the Pacific O
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Central America, (search)
Central America, A large expanse of territory connecting North and South America, and comprising in 1901 the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The region was discovered by Columbus, in his fourth voyage, in 1502. He found the bay of Honduras, where he landed; then proceeded along the main shore to Cape Gracias a Dios; and thence to the Isthmus of Darien, hoping, but in vain, to obtain a passage to the Pacific Ocean. At the isthmus he found a harbor, and, on account of its beauty and security, he called it Porto Bello. At another place in that country, on the Dureka River, he began a settlement with sixty-eight men; but they were driven off by a warlike tribe of Indians—the first repulse the Spaniards had ever met with. But for this occurrence, caused by the rapacity and cruelty of the Spaniards, Columbus might have had the honor of planting the first European colony on the continent of America. In 1509 Alonzo de Ojeda, with 300 soldiers
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Civil War in the United States. (search)
lo, Miss. Battle near Clinton, Miss.— 15. Corbin and Grau hung at Sandusky for recruiting within the Union lines.— 18. Democratic convention in New York City expresses sympathy with Vallandigham.—22-23. Battle of Gum Swamp, N. C., —28. First negro regiment from the North left Boston.—June 1. Democratic convention in Philadelphia sympathized with Vallandigham.—3. Peace party meeting in New York, under the lead of Fernando Wood.—8. Departments of Monongahela and Susquehanna created.—12. Darien, Ga., destroyed by National forces. Governor Curtin, of Pennsylvania, calls out the militia and asks for troops from New York to repel threatened Confederate invasion. General Gillmore in command of the Department of the South.—14. The consuls of England and Austria dismissed from the Confederacy.—15. President Lincoln calls for 100,000 men to repel invasion.—19. Confederate invasion of Indiana.—21. Confederate cavalry defeated at Aldie Gap, Va.—28. General Meade succee
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Colyer, Vincent 1825- (search)
d States Christian Commission. He accompanied General Burnside on the expedition to North Carolina for the purpose of ministering to the needs of the colored people. After the capture of Newbern, he was placed in charge of the helpless inhabitants. He there opened evening schools for the colored people and carried on other benevolent enterprises till May, 1862, when his work was stopped by Edward Stanley, who was appointed by the President military governor of North Carolina, and who declared that the laws of the State made it a criminal offence to teach the blacks to read. At the conclusion of the war Mr. Colyer settled in Darien, Conn. His Vincent Colyer. paintings include Johnson Straits, British Columbia; Pueblo; Passing showers; Home of the Yackamas, Oregon; Darien shore, Connecticut; Rainy day on Connecticut shore; Spring flowers; French waiter; and Winter on Connecticut shore. He died on Contentment Island, Conn., July 12, 1888. See Christian commission, United States.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Darien ship Canal, (search)
many years, and, most particularly, the United States. In 1849 an Irish adventurer published a book in which he said he had crossed and recrossed the Isthmus of Darien, and that in the construction of a canal there only 3 or 4 miles of deep rock cutting would be required. Believing this, an English company was formed for the pue project, and in 1870 two expeditions were sent out by the United States government—one under Commander T. O. Selfridge, of the United States navy, to Isthmus of Darien; and the other, under Captain Shufeldt, of the navy, to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Three routes were surveyed across the narrow part of the Isthmus of Darien byDarien by Selfridge, and he reported all three as having obstacles that made the construction of a canal impracticable. He reported a route by the Atrato and Napipi rivers as perfectly feasible. It would include 150 miles of river navigation and a canal less than 40 miles in extent. It would call for 3 miles of rock cutting 125 feet dee
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), De Soto, Fernando, 1496- (search)
De Soto, Fernando, 1496- Discoverer; born in Xeres, Estremadura, Spain, about 1496,( of a noble but impoverished family. Davila, governor of Darien, was his kin patron, through whose generosity he received a good education, and who too him to Central America, where he engaged in exploring the coast of the Pacific Ocean hundreds of miles in search of supposed strait connecting the two ocean When Pizarro went to Peru, De Soto a companied him, and was his chief lieutenant in achieving the conquest of that country. Brave and judicious, De Sot was the chief hero in the battle that resuited in the capture of Cuzco, the capital Fernando De Soto. of the Incas, and the destruction of their empire. Soon after that event he returned to Spain with large wealth, and was received by King Charles V. with great consideration. He married Isabella Bobadilla, a scion of one of the most renowned of the Castilian families, and his influence at Court was thereby strengthened. Longing to rival C
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Drake, Sir Francis, -1595 (search)
nment refused to indemnify him for his losses, and he sought revenge and found it. Queen Elizabeth gave him a commission in the royal navy, and in 1572 he sailed from Plymouth with two ships for the avowed purpose of plundering the Spaniards. He did so successfully on the coasts of South America, and returned in 1573 with greater wealth than he ever possessed before. Drake was welcomed as a hero; he soon won the title honorably by circumnavigating the globe. He had seen from a mountain on Darien the waters of the Pacific Ocean, and resolved to explore them. Under the patronage of the Queen, he sailed from Plymouth in December, 1577; passed through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific Ocean; pillaged the Spanish settlements on the coasts of Peru and Chile, and a Spanish galleon laden with gold and silver bullion; and, pushing northward, discovered the bay of San Francisco, took possession of California in the name of his Queen, and named the country New Albion, or New England.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Golden circle, the. (search)
The scheme for establishing an empire whose corner-stone should be negro slavery contemplated for the area of that empire the domain included within a circle the centre of which was Havana, Cuba, with a radius of 16 degrees latitude and longitude. It will be perceived, by drawing that circle upon a map, that it included the thirteen slavelabor States of the American republic. It reached northward to the Pennsylvania line, the old Mason and Dixon's line, and southward to the Isthmus of Darien. It embraced the West India Islands and those of the Caribbean Sea, with a greater part of Mexico and Central America. The plan of the plotters seems to have been to first secure Cuba and then the other islands of that tropical region, with Mexico and Central America; and then to sever the slave-labor States from the Union, making the former a part of the great empire, within what they called The Golden circle. In furtherance of this plan, a secret association known as the Order of the Lo
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Morgan, John Tyler 1824- (search)
best route. The Panama Canal Company, after years of exhaustive effort, and the expenditure of immense sums of money of the French people, demonstrated the fact that no other than a lock canal can be built and maintained across the Isthmus of Darien at any cost that the commerce of the world would be able to bear, as the basis of toll charges. The abandonment of the effort to change the plan of the Panama Canal from a sealevel waterway to a canal with locks (for the amount of water at thes are our pride, as a people. They are essential parts of our civilization and indispensable factors in our government; but they are becoming too much a burden upon our internal and external commerce. Water transportation through the Isthmus of Darien is to be the efficient and just competitor for transcontinental traffic, and will add immensely to their income, at lower rates of transportation, by the rapid increase of population on the Pacific slope. As we have aided great corporations by
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