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Italy (Italy) (search for this): chapter 12
o their respective gravities. b. A chamber of many turnings in which fumes, derived from dry distillation of mercury, etc., are condensed. See condenser. Lac. A resin obtained from the Ficus indica. See resin. Lace. A kind of network of threads of flax, cotton, gold or silver wire, or other suitable material, forming a fabric of transparent texture. Its origin is not known, but it appears to have been used by the ladies of ancient Greece and Rome. It was early used in Northern Italy, and is said to have been introduced into France by Mary de Medicis. In 1483 its importation into England was prohibited. The systematic manufacture was introduced into England by refugees from Flanders. Lace was anciently worked by the needle. The invention of lace knitting is attributed to Barbara, wife of Christopher Huttman, a German miner, in 1560. A manufactory was established in France by Colbert, in 1566. Point lace was embroidered with the needle. Bone lace (temp.
Nassau River (Florida, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
n coins at a distance, and tell what was passing seven miles off. Such is the claim in his son's book, second edition, published in 1591. Jansen (about 1608), a spectacle-maker of Middleburg, Holland, was struck by the effect of a concave and a convex lens held in the proper relation and distance. For the purpose of observation, he fixed the glasses on a board in proper position, and afterwards in a tube. He seems to have considered it interesting but not valuable, and Prince Maurice of Nassau became possessed of it. Lippersheim, also of Middleburg, seems to have been concerned in it in some way. Another claimant of the invention about the same date is Metius, who was a glass-cutter, and casually observed the effect of a concave and convex lens held in line in the hands. The three latter claimants had their supporters as the authors of the invention. Descartes, who lived near the time, supported the claims of Metius. Borelli, about 1650, examined the question, and decid
Blois (France) (search for this): chapter 12
s having a screw for quick motion and a compound lever and suspended weight for continuous pressure. The nut of the screw is boxed in the short lever, which is of the second class. The long lever is of the same class. Duplex lever-punch. Le′ver-punch. A punch operated by the rolling motion of two cam-faced levers which are approached by a screw. Le′ver-valve. A safety-valve kept in its seat by the pressure of a lever with an adjustable weight. The invention of Dr. Papin of Blois. In locomotives a spring is used at the end of the lever instead of a weight; the pressure being regulated by a screw and indicated on a brass plate. Under ordinary circumstances the valve-lever has a number of weights, which are added as occasion requires, or the weight is shifted in or out on the lever. See safety-valve. Lev-i-ga′tion. A process of rubbing a moist material between two hard surfaces, as in grinding pigments and printer's ink. Trituration is distinguishe<
Lincolnshire (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 12
have been brought to compose a single island, whose area is not less than sixty thousand acres. The first dikes of Holland are attributed to the Romans. A levee 6,000 yards in length defends the Romney Marsh, Essex, England, from overflow by the sea. The levee was made during the occupancy of Britain by the Romans, and is kept in good order, 24,000 acres of rich land being thus obtained. The fresh water in the ditches passes off at the lowest state of the tide by three sluices. In Lincolnshire, England, 400,000 acres of feverand-ague breeding swamp-land have been transformed into fields of wheat, barley, and oats, and excellent meadows. See scoop-wheel. Lev′el. An instrument for indicating a horizontal line, or determining the position as to horizontality of an object or surface to which it is applied. See also contact-level. The Roman instruments for leveling were the libra aquaria and the dioptera of Hipparchus, the father of astronomical geography. The name is
Lyons (France) (search for this): chapter 12
b b, and rotated by the cord which connects the end of the spring-pole with the treadle c. The chisel rests upon the bar. The earliest screw-lathe known is one described in the work of Jaques Besson (see Plate 9 of that work) published at Lyons, France, in the year 1578. This curious lathe, which is also illustrated and described on page 616, Vol. II., Holtzapffel's Turning and mechanical manipulation, has its tool traversed alongside the work by means of a guide-screw, which is moved simability to mistakes, deranging the pattern, and to obviate this a mechanical drawboy was invented. Jacquard's ingenious invention superseded this, producing an entire revolution in the art of figureweaving. Joseph Maria Jacquard was born at Lyons, 1752; invented his loom for weaving figured fabrics in 1801; and died at Orleans in 1834. The action of the Jacquard in producing patterns upon fabric may be briefly described as follows: — To the ordinary looms perforated cards are added,
Nuremberg (Bavaria, Germany) (search for this): chapter 12
its as their neighbors, and have written on waxed tablets, linen cloth, palm leaves, bark, etc. The use of parchment was not yet, if we may credit the assertion that it was invented by the king of Pergamus as a substitute for the papyrus, on which an embargo was laid by the reigning Ptolemy, whoever he was. The use of linen paper in Europe appears to have originated in Germany, about the eleventh or twelfth century, the exact date being undeterminable. We read of a German paper-mill at Nuremberg in 1390, one in England in 1343, in France, 1314, Italy, 1367. Linen paper, however, is yet preserved, containing documents of much older date. John Tate had a mill at Stevenage, England, in 1496, but the manufacture was much increased by Spielman in 1588. This person was a German jeweler, and established a paper-mill at Deptford during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Whatman's mill was established at Maidstone in 1770. The name is yet a famous brand. Linen-Prover. Lin′en-p
British Isles (search for this): chapter 12
nd the space between the two is packed with cork and light wood. Passing through this light stuff are open-ended tubes, 6 inches in diameter, which carry down any water that is shipped by the boat. The saving of life by life-boats in the British Islands, 1824 – 65, was 14,980 persons. Life-buoy. (Nautical.) A buoy or float which is thrown overboard to sustain a person until assistance arrives. It has various forms: — In one, each of the stools in the cabin has an airtight tin ssor Holmes, and afterward England took the lead in this matter of the adaptation of electric illumination to lighthouse purposes. The Bishop rock light, Scilly Islands, the old Cassiterides of Herodotus, 145 feet high, cost £ 36,559. In the British Isles there are 357 shore lights and 47 floating lights. The French have 224 shore lights. The average annual expense in England of a shore light is £ 500; of a floating light, £ 1,200. The lighthouses of the world are estimated at 2,814.
Chantilly (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
are twisted round those of the warp. The manner of twisting determines the character of the net and its name, as whip-net, mail-net, pattern-net, drop-net, spider-net, balloon-net, Paris-net, bobbin-net. The classification of laces at the English exhibition of 1851 was as follows: — 1. Pillow-lace, the article or fabric being wholly made by hand (known as Valencieanes, Mechlia, Honiton, Buckingham); or Guipare made by the crochet-needle; and silk lace, called blande when white, and Chantilly, Pay, Grammont, and black Buckinghamshire, when black. 2. Lace, the ground being machine-wrought, the ornamentation made on the pillow and afterwards applied to the ground (known as Brussels, Honiton, or appliquee lace). 3. Machine-made net or quillings, wholly plain, whether warp or bobbin (known as bobbin-net, tulles, blondes, Cambraic, Mechlin, Malines, Brussels, Alencon, etc.). 4. Lace, the ground being wholly made by machine, partly ornamented by machine and partly by hand, o
Base Line (Oregon, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
klayer's cord, which is his guide for level and direction. It is stretched between line-pins. 12. (Railroad-engineering.) A railway-track, as the main line or trunk. A loop-line, a connecting line, a crossing line, a side line or switch. 13. (Telegraphy.) The wire connecting one station with another. The part of an instrument to which the line is connected is known as its terminal. The wires and instruments form the circuit. See circuit ; wire. 14. (Surveying.) a. Base-line. A carefully measured line which extends between two stations and forms the basis of triangulation. b. Line of direction. The bearing. The line laid down or protracted in a survey. 15. (Drafting and Perspective.) a. The ground line or fanlamental line. The common section of the ground plane and the base of the picture. The terrestrial line. b. The horizontal line. The common section of the horizontal and that of the draft of representation, passing through the principal point
-frame. (Flax-manufacture.) A machine in which several slivers of carded tow from the breaker, or first carding-machine, are united in a lap and wound on a bobbin, from which they may be fed to the finisher-card. Lap′i-da-ry-mill. The grinding and polishing apparatus of the lapidary. See lapidary-wheel; lap. Lap′i-da-ry-wheel. The art of diamond-cutting was probably known in China and India at an early day, but the stone was little known among the ancients of Europe and Western Asia. Other varieties of stones were mounted and used in great numbers. Pliny refers to gem-cutting: How many hands are worn down that one little joint of our finger may be ornamented. The Arabians brought the diamond into notice. The discovery of the Brazilian mines in 1730 made it more common. Berghen of Bruges furnished the lapidaries' wheel with diamond-dust, enabling him to cut diamonds, as other stones were cut by the emery previously used. Diamonds were previously set in the rough<
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